Digital Participatory Culture and the TV Audience: Everyone’s a Critic

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Many vloggers will ask questions in their videos or ask for an opinion from their viewers who can respond via the comments section. This can be anything from asking what their viewers did that day or asking for suggestions for a new eyeliner, and is an easy way to make viewers feel more involved in the whole process.

Some argue that due to vloggers ability to choose what they show in their videos, that they give out a very selected display and thus are giving out false images of their lives. However, instead of seeing it like that, most people view this new form of entertainment as refreshing and very personal, as most vloggers share their flaws, worries, and everyday lives. This personal relationship, and friendships, that viewers form with the people on these channels are much due to the realness and the authenticity that is possible through social mediums such as Twitter.

These vloggers do not only put down time on their videos, but they have realized the importance of being accessible on other social media sites in order to strengthen their YouTube channel and keep that genuine connection with their audience. So along side being a vlogger, they have very strong presences on Twitter and Instagram, sites were they do a lot of free digital labour in order to craft a strong and loyal following that will help them make money off of their YouTube videos. This media convergence has also spread so far as some of the most popular YouTubers have written books, been featured on television, gotten radio shows or created their own makeup line.

A Let's Play is a video that documents a playthrough of a video game , accompanied by commentary from the gamer [21]. A Let's Play is different to a walkthrough or guide as it focuses on one player's experience alongside subjective, and often humorous or critical, commentary rather than aiming to be objective or informative. Let's Play videos uploaded to YouTube are able to monetized so that the players earn a share of ad revenue from the video hosting site — in this instance, YouTube.

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Let's Play videos have been considered a good way to market video games, particularly by smaller or independent developers. Developers of the video game Octodad: Dadliest Catch designed their game with the aim of having it appear is Let's Play videos: "We started designing Deadliest Catch to encourage [Let's Play videos] and create a lot of room where there are a lot of different options for a player to create their own comedy and put their own personality into that.

When one of those people really likes it, two or three hundred thousand people were just told that this game is really fantastic. The copyright nature of Let's Play videos remains in question. Nintendo has created an affiliate program which allows them to share in the profits of Let's Play videos. Regarding digital labour, there are many perspectives and viewpoints from various people debating whether or not it has caused positive or negative issues overall.

There is a strong and unavoidable link between social ideology and the advances of technology.

Perspectives in Digital Culture/Digital Labour and Social Media

He argues that digital labour creates a more sociable working atmosphere as people have more freedom to be creative and unique with their work, however, there is still the issue of inequality and exploitation. For example, those who have power and influence 'offline', such as actors, celebrities and corporations, will have more 'likes, 'retweets' and followers than the average social media user, meaning they can reinforce ideological belief through the power they wield. This, "reflects see the inequalities of power in society," [29] online.

Jenkins, Ford and Green argue that audience labour cannot be only described and viewed as exploitation and that this type of labour can sometimes be done by their own personal drive and the desire to succeed in terms other than just financially.

Participatory culture

However, the desire to do this work does not disregard or excuse the fact that they are still being exploited and it still exists whether or not the people feel like they are being manipulated and taken advantage of, regardless if they are willing to do the work or not. Fuchs also quotes Miles, [31] who suggests that unpaid labour should simply enhance living conditions over anything else. This argues against the understanding of unpaid, exploitative labour being acceptable simply because people enjoy what they are doing. Fuchs notes that Marx believed human beings were naturally social creatures who needed communication in order to survive.

However, Fuchs does not class social media as providing communication facilities that are necessary to human survival. Fuchs uses the analogy of a can of coca-cola - buying the product gives profit to Coca-Cola, but not drinking it. Using Facebook is like giving Coca-Cola more profit for every sip. Thus, it can be argued that all time spent on social media is, in Marxist terms, a form of Digital Labour. However, in the digital age the argument can go even further. Even if not, all internet users leave a digital footprint, of uploaded data, social media networks, demographic data and general online behaviour.

Marxism holds that capitalism is maintained through the imposition of a dominant ideology. In the case of digital media, Fuchs describes ideology as taking two forms:. In these terms, we are facilitating our own exploitation, for the benefit of the dominant class, same as it ever was. But perhaps Digital Labour does provide products that satisfy human needs, like the desire for interaction, or curiosity.

Have the avenues opened up by the explosion of information in the Digital Age led to a form of Labour in Capitalism that does not produce alienation? This is due to the willingness and enthusiasm of the people carrying out this kind of cultural work. Hesmondhalgh cites non-digital examples of this as including learning a musical instrument, or playing sport. The problem, from a Marxist perspective, is that while an amateur football coach can be legitimately said to be helping people and not the corporate class, someone providing football tips on Facebook might help others, but will also be helping raise the value of the Facebook corporation.

Fuchs [39] states that Hesmondhalgh fails to distinguish between two types of hobby activities:. Quoting Wright, Fuchs explains that as a result of the second type of hobby activity, individuals are denied material benefits despite accumulating the profit, and that the individuals who created the content are excluded from media ownership.

In using their free time to pursue whatever they see fit, they are fulfilling their individual wants and needs with no impediment. John Hartley [40] agrees with Hesmondhalgh that Digital Media has had an overall positive and non-exploitative effect, and has actually democratized society on a scale never seen before, in the media, in the public sector, in Universities, and in terms of the political and social engagement of the citizenry. Hartley concedes that this universal network of whose praises he sings is dominated by large corporations - but 2 billion people do have access to the internet, and the communicative tools that these new mediums offer the less advantaged who do have internet access enables them to level the playing field, and even eventually become part of the elite, in a meritocratic never before seen in a capitalist economy.

The previous forms of capitalism are firstly, mercantile i. Social media can be defined as an "on-line environment in which people create a self-descriptive profile and then make links to other people they know on the site, creating a network of personal connections Social Media are a platform for communication, expression and organisation. For many people it can now be used as a source of information, whether it is personal or to keep up to date with current news topics.

Social media as a tool is now one of the most powerful influences in the modern world, with million million of those on Smartphones users logging on to Facebook everyday for example. Social Media can be seen as a place to meet new friends, or rekindle old friendship, it is a point of contact for many people and can be used to reach out to institutions, brands and commonly celebrities.

Social networking sites are not just for friends and families communicating together and as well as meeting strangers. What makes social networking sites unique is rather that users are able to be articulate and make it visible on their own social networking profiles. This can mean that people can have a connection with other individuals that would not otherwise be formed [48]. However, with the growth of social media, it has become more apparent that it can be used for negative purposes at an alarming rate.

Social media brands like Facebook , Twitter , Snapchat and Instagram have vigorously ramped up their security measures and privacy settings as fraud, pedophilia, and cyber-bullying has become a serious issue over the years. Many groups or individuals can now hack profiles for personal gain; abuse or threaten users through racism, sectarianism or other hate crimes; and also groom younger users, all through various and collective social media sites. This has become an issue which is now taught through various educational institutions, employers and communities to keep individuals of all ages safe but wary of the dangers that are lurking through social media.

Moreover, through these issues of Social media, reality T. V shows like Catfish have rose to popularity as a method of warning and educating people worldwide of how easy it can be to fall for fake profiles and to be careful who you trust online. Catfish illustrates the severity some people go to online, to pretend to be someone they are not, and the amount of people this can consequently affect. However, the documentary film it is based on was accused of being staged and exaggerating the consequences.

Social Networking is not a new concept - It is simply a form of communication that has been around for thousands of years. Current popular social media sites today are the result of a developing social media trend [50] stretching back centuries. Many hundreds of years ago, a popular method of communication was through local town criers who were tasked with making public announcements [51] and in , long distance telegraphy became another form of communication. The end of the 's saw the first patent drawing of the telephone [53] marking the start of a new era in communication technologies, eventually allowing for faster communication between two people.

Social media's main concept is to share content with one another, this is not something that was invented through technology and hasn't been exclusively available since the rise from the 's and onward.


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Sharing content is something which can be seen as a human instinct, if we read a good story or see something entertaining our first trail of thought is to tell someone about it or put the information gathered to use, elsewhere. Writing, for example, is an art which is thousands of years old and the hard copies have always been available to share, whether it is with a small group of people, or more recently to hundreds or more online. Social media now is something we interact with everyday and has been since the rise of desktop PC's, laptop's and smartphones.

Before the 's social networking was more or less only hand written letters, however those with access to super computers, developed in the 's, could develop ways to create networks between those computers, and this would later lead to the birth of the Internet, this was exclusive to scientists and engineers at the time.

As home computers got more common, media became more sophisticated. Blogging was the form of social media which made it really explode in popularity, LinkedIn and MySpace came to light and made it easier to share information for business and leisure use whilst in wasn't until when YouTube was launched where the methods of sharing media changed forever. The face of social media has now evolved in to where it is possible to put almost anything online, in terms of moments, videos, pictures etc and is easier than ever. On the other hand, Social media has become a very dangerous place to be and users are encouraged to think about what they are posting online before doing so.

Many sites have guidelines where posts must be kind, necessary, thoughtful and avoid controversy. With the rapid rise of social media, it quickly became apparent that in order to protect all social media users, new laws would have to be put in place which can prosecute users who involve themselves in abusive or dangerous activity. The Crown Office and Procurator Fiscal services of the UK have set out guidelines as to what could break new Social media laws and face prosecution.

Social networking sites started in , with the first recognizable site being SixDegrees. This social networking site started the trend of creating a customizable and personal profile with the ability for people to make their own friends list [55]. Over the last two decades, Social Media has transpired to become a key way to inform, educate and influence both individuals and organisations across society, leaving connectivity as a valuable resource today.

Before social media sites became as popular as they are today, the whole concept was originally thought to be an isolating activity with only the more studious of people participating in the social networking experience. Social media is the most popular form of internet usage now, with it topping any other form of internet activity, including email and online shopping. Along with the social aspects, online media platforms have become an essential tool within the business industry. From exchanging and selling products to interacting with their customers, businesses can now engage with various aspects of their industry across a more global scale; almost instantaneously.

Social media has also become a form of communication for employers today, as some advertise their jobs through social media sites. With 1, million profiles on Facebook, [58] it is a particularly important platform for distributing information for businesses. There has been a dominant trend in Social Media over the last 10 years and it varies over multiple generations.


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The flow of usage moved consistently through different social media sites over time. Bebo and MySpace were by far the most popular social media sites from around to and after the launch of Facebook, the sites seemed to rapidly lose users to the rival site. Bebo , for example, was launched in but only survived 5 years due the falling numbers of unique users; Bebo users were moving to rival sites Facebook and Twitter and on April 7, , AOL announced that it would either sell the website, or shut it down.

Moreover, MySpace still survives however its engagement has fallen rapidly since the rise of Facebook and Twitter. Launched in , MySpace was prominently used to share new music, it was mostly popular due to the fact Justin Timberlake was a founding member and took ownership stake, and funded the site through is own advertisement etc.

However, in more recent times, although Facebook still attracts the highest calculated amount of engagement, younger users now seem to be moving across to newer social media sites such as Twitter, Instagram and Snapchat. The representation of these sites in the media seems to reflect and reproduce these trends of flow across various social media websites. The main reason for these moving trends is the basic use of smartphones and the ease of Internet access being so readily available.

Network providers now have Internet data packages and WiFi available at lower costs, and this is also a moving trend, it is only going to become easier to access and be accessible for more people.

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Many different case studies can illustrate the power of social media and how quickly it can start or end trends as well as spread information. Millions got involve including even those like owner Mark Zuckerberg himself, and celebrities like George W. A very recent case of this came in the end of February , where a photograph of a dress was posted on Twitter.

Within hours, it had gone viral worldwide and resulted in Buzzfeed having it's busiest day in history. The phenomenon behind the dress was that it appeared to be an optical illusion where some saw a white and gold dress whilst others saw black and blue. The exact reason as to why individuals saw differently or even changed their minds has not yet exactly been revealed, however there has been many attempts at explaining the science behind it.

The dress even made BBC news on Friday, 28th February and continued to confuse viewers and scholars alike. Most of the posts were marked with the hashtag TheDress and heat maps show it trended over 50 countries and viewed over 21 million times. Social Media offers a new means of communication for brands and organisations to reach large and responsive audiences. According to ZenithOptimedia, the Internet is now the world's second-largest advertising medium. Social media advertisements create awareness and targets audiences based on their profile and behavioural data.

Personal data is extremely valuable for companies and largely popular sites such as Facebook often sell their users data to third party business'. With the introduction of social media, marketers are able to analyse users personal tastes and their online activity and thus decide who to target their products at. By having this data about their audience and being able to communicate their marketing messages effectively marketers are able to reach those who want to hear from them.

The end consumer is now the one able to determine the landscape of their marketing experience and the brand is better off as a result. There are a number of ethical issues often raised surrounding advertising via social media web sites. Some people are skeptical about the sincerity of certain brands who exploit the features of social media sites to gain popularity without establishing an initial relationship with individuals.

For example, hosting competitions and giveaways to encourage "likes" or "retweets" from people who would otherwise express no interest in an organisation or brand. Is this just a deceitful strategy positioned to help their content makes its way into the news feeds of our peers? Further, we all too often see brands trying to capitalise on national tragedies and play on people's feelings in order to accumulate online support.

For example, NBC Bay Area posted a status on Facebook following the Boston bombing encouraging people to "like" if they wished a victim a speedy recovery. This may seem like an unethical attempt to market their company and accumulate fans which makes one question their authenticity when sending out marketing messages. Large reach is a key factor for companies using social media for advertising for example in December , the top three site, Facebook, Myspace and YouTube had roughly million unique visitors combined in the US alone.

With companies incorporating social networks with their advertising strategies, this means that they can reach out to a lager user base across the countries and world. Advertising on social media is a cost effective as it is moderately cheap compared to other traditional media, as it usually has the same or expanded reach at much lower cost. Targeted advertising is ideal as Advertisers have access to a great deal of information about users and their interests, this allows them to customize and target their ads to a degree not yet seen in any other advertising medium.

With people are spending growing amount of time online, particularly on social media. With users spending so much time online advertisers are increasingly looking for ways to reach out to consumers. Since technology has become such a prevalent part of modern day life, so has the threat of attack through technological avenues been recognised as a growing problem. A technological attack can take the form of malware, malicious emails, hacking of security or government information.

Technology and the rise of social media has also resulted in the spread of terrorism on social media. This has also led to concerns over the possibility of using encryption tools to hide identify and location, making users untraceable. The Patriot Act , first signed by George W. Bush in and has allowed the government to receive larger, more personal types of information gathered from users by Internet service providers, without having to order for a subpoena. The widespread use of social media make it an ideal platform to post these activities, in conjunction with users being keen to share things they find online with their friends.

By having their media become so widespread on social media that it becomes viral increases the chances of media convergence occurring and having the videos feature on local news via television, newspapers and radio which will increase the number of people it reaches.

Originally limited to college students in Harvard University where the founders studied, Facebook has expanded over the years to incorporate everyone all over the world. The site now has an estimated 1. One of Facebook's main goals is to "have one day everybody on the planet on Facebook". Facebook as one of the most popular social networks around has asked to translate a site into other languages for free. In his book "Digital Labour and Karl Marx" Christian Fusch wrote that English teacher, Valentin Macias, has volunteered in past to translate for the nonprofit Wikipedia but said he won't do it for Facebook.

He described Wikipedia as an altruistic, information-sharing site. Facebook is the opposite, he said that: "People should not be tricked into donating their time and energy to a multimillion-dollar company so that the company can make millions more-at least not without some type of compensation". Also in the article, Nicholas Graham argues that a lack of credit is given to the vast majority of media producers, Facebook users, and compared this to the death of the author. A particular concern is the notion of digital labour as "self activity" and where ideas are externalized and exchanged for free as commodities , since the ideas are use values.

It argues that Facebook is an instrument of labour much like our brains and mouths. It further argues that Facebook coerces users into digital labour by exploiting the human need for social interaction. There is a concern that Facebook has a monopoly on socialization and is "a social form of coercion that threatens the user with isolation and social disadvantages", ostensibly privatizing human interaction. The concern is that Facebook users' work "serves Facebook's profit interests" while the users remain unpaid, something which has real life parallels.

The object side of Facebook is grounded in social relations between Facebook, advertising clients and users. The exchange relation between Facebook and advertisers is coupled with the advertising relation between advertisers and users. Both relations create profit for Facebook and their advertisers.

These commercial relations do not immediately present themselves to the users, who mainly see the relationships between themselves and other users. Facebook takes advantage of its inverse fetish character by presenting itself as an organisation that is about sharing and social relations.

Wikipedia tells us that "Twitter is an online social networking service that enables users to send and read short character messages called 'tweets'. Registered users can post tweets, read and 'retweet' other public tweets onto their own timeline and add them to a favourites list, while unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through the website interface, SMS, or mobile device app. Registered users can choose whether their Tweets are public or private and can freely follow any public accounts, whilst to follow private accounts users need to make a follow request which will then need to be approved by the account user.

When online, users can post character tweets as well as upload images and more recently, videos. When uploading tweets, users commonly use hashtags to mark their Tweets with a relevant subject or topic, this hashtag then adds to trends which can be seen worldwide, national or regional dependent on location.

Twitter Inc. There are over million monthly active users and around million tweets sent every day. Instagram is a platform for users to upload photographs or videos to their own timeline or "photo-map". Users can filter their own camera shots or other images to put their own unique twist or design on the image itself. Instagram follows a similar process to Twitter, where users can follow each other and have the choice whether their content is public or privately shared, and hashtags are commonly used to designate the theme or subject behind the upload.

When clicked on, these hashtags take you to a page full of other people's posts containing the same hashtag word or phrase, allowing users to scroll through similar content. Uploads to Instagram can be liked, commented on or shared, not only within itself but across majority of other social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr etc [81] and the social media app currently has over million users with over a billion uploads across those.

As with many social media sites Instagram has the issue of spam accounts. Instagram is notable as in it conducted a massive purge of spam accounts leading to a considerable drop of followers for many accounts. The purge also resulted in some celebrities deleting accounts after a considerable loss of followers.

This in some cases was down to followers having been bought online to boost accounts. YouTube allows for the distribution of video, short films, tutorials, advertising and communication between the subscribers and commentators. YouTube allows others including people who do not have YouTube accounts to broadcast their homemade videos, and allows people to share these video's across other social media platforms. According to Hector Postigo "YouTube is the space where people can share video and socialize around it, and where we can turn a profit from it with minimum work in doing so.

YouTube is slightly harder to recognise as a social media platform, but on YouTube people are able to like and dislike video's, comment on them, subscribe to their channel and share video's amongst other social media platforms or by sending the URL. YouTube recognises what videos you watch and tailors your home page and video side bar with suggestions of what you might like to watch-- all of which are common features amongst social media platforms.

One of the most important features YouTube has is the ranking system, videos without many views do not show up on search results as frequently or as higher up. This means that the highest possible view count is the main goal for "YouTubers", and subscribers are the central most common social currency on YouTube due to them being the main source of where views come from because they will receive email updates when the accounts they are subscribed to upload a video. It is in fact the subscriber system that makes YouTube more difficult to identify as a social media.

Due to the growth of advertising and YouTube, unlike most other social media platform, being more consumable as a media YouTube in many ways is becoming as much distinctly producer and consumer as it is prosumer. This is mainly down to the growth of 'YouTubers', people whom are recognised for their creation of content as either a primary or a considerable job. A lot of this started through the gaming community and individuals producing content such as lets plays, these days it has expanded into a wide array of content but a lot of considerable 'YouTubers' often produce gaming related content.

This is where YouTube differentiates from other social media as you can exist solely as a consumer on YouTube or solely as a producer, despite its prosumer origins. Who you subscribe to on YouTube and the content you watch has now moved towards the same principles of consumership that exist when watching television, this has created a divide evident within YouTube that is not there with other social media as it is used far more prominently to consume rather than Network.

Hence why there are networks of content creators and networks of fans. YouTube allows registered users to monetize their uploaded videos in return for placing advertisements at the start of a video, and even continuously throughout if the run-time of the video is wrong. However, content cannot be monetized if the uploader does not hold the rights to any copyright material used. Users adding music to their videos is the most common source of copyright infringement, as YouTube automatically analyses and detects the audio used in uploaded content. Copyright holders do have the discretion to allow or disallow the use of their property in uploaded content, as was seen in as Nintendo insisted upon the removal of all 'let's plays' featuring Nintendo games.

This caused controversy as the 'let's play' community insisted that the process served only to boost the popularity of Nintendo games as it was essentially a form of advertisement. Pinterest is an idea hub where users can generate, discover, and save creative ideas in the form of 'pins'. A 'pin' is essentially a visual bookmark of a webpage that has information on a topic a user would like to keep.

These pins, or bookmarks, are then saved to a users individual boards. These challenges affect how many populations interact with the changing media in society and unfortunately leave many at a disadvantage. This divide between users of new media and those who are unable to access these technologies is also referred to as the digital divide.

It leaves low-income families and children at a severe disadvantage that affects them in the present as well as the future. Students for example are largely affected because without access to the Internet or a computer they are unable to do homework and projects and will moreover be unsuccessful in school. These poor grades can lead to frustration with academia and furthermore may lead to delinquent behavior, low income jobs, decreased chanced of pursuing higher educations, and poor job skills. Increased facility with technology does not necessarily lead to increased ability to interpret how technology exerts its own pressure on us.

Indeed, with increased access to information, the ability to interpret the viability of that information becomes increasingly difficult. This is identified as a "breakdown of traditional forms of professional training and socialization that might prepare young people for their increasingly public roles as media makers and community participants" Jenkins et al. For example, throughout most of the last half of the 20th century learners who wanted to become journalists would generally engage in a formal apprenticeship through journalism classes and work on a high school newspaper. This work would be guided by a teacher who was an expert in the rules and norms of journalism and who would confer that knowledge to student-apprentices.

With increasing access to Web 2. A key goal in media education, then, must be to find ways to help learners develop techniques for active reflection on the choices they make—and contributions they offer—as members of a participatory culture. As teachers, administrators, and policymakers consider the role of new media and participatory practices in the school environment, they will need to find ways to address the multiple challenges.

Challenges include finding ways to work with the decentralization of knowledge inherent in online spaces; developing policies with respect to filtering software that protects learners and schools without limiting students' access to sites that enable participation; and considering the role of assessment in classrooms that embrace participatory practices. Cultures are substantially defined by their media and their tools for thinking, working, learning, and collaborating.

Unfortunately a large number of new media are designed to see humans only as consumers; and people, particularly young people in educational institutions, form mindsets based on their exposure to specific media. The current mindset about learning, teaching, and education is dominated by a view in which teaching is often fitted "into a mold in which a single, presumably omniscient teacher explicitly tells or shows presumably unknowing learners something they presumably know nothing about".

Learning should not take place in a separate phase and in a separate place, but should be integrated into people's lives allowing them to construct solutions to their own problems. As they experience breakdowns in doing so, they should be able to learn on demand by gaining access to directly relevant information. The direct usefulness of new knowledge for actual problem situations greatly improves the motivation to learn the new material because the time and effort invested in learning are immediately worthwhile for the task at hand — not merely for some putative long-term gain.

In order to create active contributor mindsets serving as the foundation of participatory cultures, learning cannot be restricted to finding knowledge that is "out there". Rather than serving as the "reproductive organ of a consumer society" [46] educational institutions must cultivate the development of an active contributor mindset by creating habits, tools and skills that help people become empowered and willing to actively contribute to the design of their lives and communities. Beyond supporting contributions from individual designers, educational institutions need to build a culture and mindset of sharing, supported by effective technologies and sustained by personal motivation to occasionally work for the benefit of groups and communities.

This includes finding ways for people to see work done for the benefits of others being "on-task", rather than as extra work for which there is no recognition and no reward. As institutions, schools have been slow on the uptake of participatory culture. Instead, afterschool programs currently devote more attention to the development of new media literacies, or, a set of cultural competencies and social skills that young people need in the new media landscape.

Participatory culture shifts this literacy from the individual level to community involvement. Networking and collaboration develop social skills that are vital to the new literacies. Although new, these skills build on an existing foundation of traditional literacy, research skills, technical skills, and critical analysis skills taught in the classroom.

Metadesign is "design for designers" [47] It represents an emerging conceptual framework aimed at defining and creating social and technical infrastructures in which participatory cultures can come alive and new forms of collaborative design can take place. It extends the traditional notion of system design beyond the original development of a system to allow users become co-designers and co-developers. It is grounded in the basic assumption that future uses and problems cannot be completely anticipated at design time, when a system is developed.

Users, at use time, will discover mismatches between their needs and the support that an existing system can provide for them. These mismatches will lead to breakdowns that serve as potential sources of new insights, new knowledge, and new understanding. Meta-design supports participatory cultures as follows:.

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Harvard Educational Review 73 3 , p. The MIT Press. Retrieved Digital Formations, Peter Lang, New York. NYU Press. Journal of Economic Perspectives. What Is Web 2. Wireless World: The 'Orange Revolution'. Retrieved on Asia Buzz: Revolution. How text messaging toppled Joseph Estrada. Mobile Phones and Social Activism:Why cell phones may be the most important technical innovation of the decade. Understanding Digital Culture. Biol Philos 23 : — Chi '10 : — Interacting with Computers. Retrieved December 8, New Haven: Yale, Anthony D.

A New Literacies Sampler. Available at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on Media Literacy Online Project. Media Literacy Review. Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 1 January Determining the truth value of information has become increasingly difficult in an age of increasing diversity and ease of access to information.

Lieberman, F. Wulf Eds. Free-culture and open-source movements. Commons-based peer production Crowdsourcing Gratis versus libre Open collaboration Openness Participatory culture Sharism. Peer-to-peer banking Peer-to-peer carsharing Peer-to-peer lending Peer-to-peer ridesharing. Collaborative writing Democratic media Open publishing Participatory media Peer review. Open education Educational resources University Admissions Open-door academic policy. Citizen media Citizen journalism and Wiki journalism Open-source journalism.

Gift economy Open innovation Open patent Open standard Sharing economy. Open government Open-source governance. Todd John Wilbanks. Categories : Collaboration Internet culture Digital divide Participatory democracy. Hidden categories: CS1 errors: missing periodical CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list All articles with dead external links Articles with dead external links from March Articles with permanently dead external links CS1 errors: deprecated parameters CS1 maint: archived copy as title Articles needing additional references from May All articles needing additional references Articles that may contain original research from May All articles that may contain original research All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May Stanfill further states that the overall trend of fans being portrayed as white in popular culture serve to reinforce that whiteness is the expectation for fans Stanfill The stereotype of fans as white males is frequently inaccurate.

In addition, women often make up the majority of a transformative-work-centered subset of fans even for media aimed at men; for instance, women were the primary drivers of the early Star Trek fandom, which is generally considered to be the first modern media fandom. Similarly, many people of color do participate in fandom; however, except in cases where the original source material is non-Western, the existence and contributions of fans of color are often less recognized then those of their white counterparts.

A rare vintage comic book, one example of a collectors item that some fans value as part of their authenticity and identity. In his work on fan and participatory culture, Matt Hills examines the interplay between production and the consumerism that fan cultures criticize. Furthermore, several different fan cultures have turned those who subscribe to traditional workings of capitalism into the other; people who buy too many items automatically lose authenticity by contributing to structures that align too strongly with dominant capitalist society, therefore alienating themselves from supposedly committed fans.

Henry Jenkins: Participatory Culture, Politics, and Learning – MIT Center for Civic Media

Therefore, fans must perpetually occupy a space in which they carve out their own unique identity, separate from conventional consumerism but also bolster their credibility with particular collectors items. Although the two concepts seem based in opposition, Hills argues that they are inherently related and dependent upon one another.

However, Hills then goes on to suggest that fan subculturists must accept such a polarity as an innate contradiction. Therefore, participants normally fall somewhere on the spectrum of consumer and producer, creating monetary value with their overinvestment in specific objects while also forming resistance against the typical trappings they find in consumerism. According to Turk, fannish gifts include not only the most visible forms of creative output — fic, art, vids, etc. This helps explain why fans choose to participate in the subculture: the value lies not just in the creation of art or writing about their favorite TV show or movie, but in the consumption of those works by other fans, and the sense of community created when gifts are accepted in the form of being read, watched, or otherwise appreciated.

These characterizations ultimately result in stigmatizing fan culture, as the participants are easily stereotyped. Jensen states that although these stereotypes are not representative of fan culture as a whole, they reveal our beliefs about modern society and our relationship to it. Furthermore, society views modernity as the increasing role of mass media in our lives. Those who fall victim to the irrational appeals are manipulated by mass media to essentially display irrational loyalties to an aspect of pop culture.

They do not like the idea of being taken advantage of by a marketing firm or corporation, so they ostracize those who they believe have been. However, this psychological compensation does not apply to all members of fan culture, as there is a difference between those fans who replace interpersonal relationships with media-audience relationships and those whose participation in fan culture is supplemental to or aids in making interpersonal relationships.

Jensen states that within fan culture, there are fans, fanatics, and deviants. Whereas fans seek identity and connections with others via a subject, fanatics view the subject as an important aspect of their identity which is integral to their self-esteem. Furthermore, this line is constructed, context dependent.

Basically, other members of society can be just as interested in a subject as fans, but the subject and the approach to it is what differentiates the two. For instance, as Jensen explains, a person who is passionate about an academic subject can be just as passionate about that subject as a member of fan culture; however, society views academia as a rational interest held by educated, high class members of society whereas society views fandom as an emotional obsession held by uneducated low class members of society which is therefore dangerous.

Henry Jenkins is an American media scholar. His book, Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture , is considered a seminal work in fan theory and the study of participatory culture. Jenkins has studied how fan cultures resist traditional narratives of gender and sexuality. He has also written more generally about participatory culture beyond fan culture, including analysis of how online communication has facilitated creative participation by media users.

Joli Jensen is a professor of communications at the University of Tulsa. She addresses her interests in American cultural and social thought through her works. He supervises a number of PhD students interested in his areas of study in addition to writing books and articles about fandom and participatory culture. In his first book Fan Cultures , Hills outlines a number of contradictions inherent in fan communities such as the necessity for and resistance towards consumerism, the complicated factors associated with hierarchy, and the search for authenticity among several different types of fandom.

Media and Scholarship. Citizen Fan. A French documentary about fan culture, particularly fan fiction, fanzines, vidding, and cosplay. Contains examples of the positive aspects of the Furry fandom as well as some of the more stigmatized aspects, comparisons to mainstream culture, and the notion that fandom is a phase that can be outgrown. Trekkies : A documentary featuring interviews with devoted fans of Star Trek, including Barbara Adams the Whitewater juror who appeared in court wearing a Starfleet uniform.

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