International Handbook Of Development Economics
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The chapter also shows that the physical stature of African children fit well into the global income—height relationship.
A Critical Perspective On Development Economics
Hence, we conclude that the anomaly in the income—height nexus at country level appears to originate between childhood and adulthood. We present evidence for considerable catch-up growth involving entire populations. We discuss possible reasons for this catch-up growth including genetics, and, above all, better nutrition and health conditions during adolescence. This chapter provides a panoramic view of the conceptualization, design, and implementation of growth strategies in Africa, from the pre-colonial period to the present. These strategies have been shaped by different schools of thought, interests, and emerging issues prevalent at the time.
They have varied chronologically: from the colonial strategy of exporting commodities to feed Northern industries, the immediate post-independent import substitution, the Washington Consensus and the Post- Washington Consensus, to the current country-specific and regional cooperation strategies. Going forward, African countries need to craft growth strategies that ensure sustenance of the impressive growth recorded over the last decade. The growth must be more inclusive, through the optimal use of fiscal and natural resources as well as effective governance to improve job creation, and reduce inequality and poverty.
In addition, any future strategy must be mindful of the environment and technological advances, and should entail strengthening regional integration and South—South cooperation. This chapter discusses the experience of African countries with monetary unions, focusing on the CFA Zone where that experience has been the longest and the deepest history of integration.
It briefly discusses how the intellectual legacy of colonialism led to distorted expectations and the neglect of the exchange rate—a crucial tool for improving the standards of living in open economies. It then provides the analytical framework for understanding why trade reforms did not yield positive results in the fixed exchange rate environment.
The chapter also draws some lessons from that macroeconomics of masochism, which consists in pegging the exchange rate of small, poor economies to a strong currency. Finally, it reexamines the criteria for assessing the validity of monetary unions regardless of whether they peg their currency or not. Structural reforms implemented at both the macroeconomic and sector levels beginning in the s played a fundamental role in the formation of Latin America's heterogeneous agricultural sector.
Nearly all countries in the region embraced the same reform principles. Typically, these reforms saw unilateral trade liberalization, the elimination of subsidies, the privatization or closure of state-owned firms, the dismantling of research and extension institutions or a significant curtailment of their activities, and the deregulation of markets for agricultural goods and services.
This chapter reviews these reforms, the challenges each country has faced in their implementation, and their impacts on the agriculture sectors of Latin American countries, and also considers the role of the state in agriculture and rural development.
Agricultural supply chains are rapidly growing, and they are an increasing source of employment in the country. Agricultural markets are found to be better integrated and marketing margins and seasonal price amplitudes to have become smaller over time, but we also see an increase in prices of nutritious high-value foods, and this is in contrast to staple cereal prices.
Although food imports and the number of food aid beneficiaries have not reduced over time, Ethiopia remained a net agricultural exporter, in value terms, for all but one year in the decade before this study, illustrating at the national level the relatively good performance of the agricultural sector. This chapter discusses the role agriculture has played in growth and economic transformation in Ethiopia since the s.
We use the theoretical perspectives of these models and of ADLI to discuss progress in growth and poverty in this period. We find that ADLI offered a plausible and seemingly successful strategy for Ethiopia at an earlier stage of its growth and transformation, but it has serious limitations. In more recent years there appears to have been more emphasis on urban and industrial growth and this may also have the potential to boost value added and labour productivity in agriculture—reversing the sectoral dynamics of the ADLI approach.
Looking forward, we posit that to make further progress in agriculture, there is a need to acknowledge and facilitate the transmission of urban and international demand, thereby encouraging higher-value crops and higher value addition. This chapter reviews the evolution of development theory and practice, the role of agriculture therein, and the pace of structural transformation in Africa over the last 50 years. The evolution has involved shifting roles of industry versus agriculture and that of government and the public sector versus markets and the private sector.
Handbook - Course - Development Economics - ECON
Government intervention in favor of industrialization in the s and s resulted in the neglect of agriculture, poor growth performance, and a productivity-reducing structural transformation, characterized by an increasing concentration of low productivity labor in the informal service sector. The chapter suggests a move away from the dual economy to a three-dimensional model that pays greater attention to the large informal segment of the service sector. A successful transformation will require accelerated agricultural productivity growth, a modernized informal service sector, and effective industrialization strategies, with balanced roles for government, markets, and the private sector, all supported by country-led, evidence-based strategies.
Some authors have stressed the importance of aid in boosting growth, given that poverty levels in most aid recipient countries particularly sub-Saharan Africa have continued to worsen in the presence of increasing aid, others have questioned the relevance of aid in enhancing growth. The chapter briefly looks at the trend in aid by the major donors to Africa and the aid architecture in Africa. This is followed by a presentation on the varying arguments in this controversial topic by looking at some issues raised in the development discourse.
This chapter explains how official development assistance ODA can help achieve the structural transformation of African economies, and thereby inclusive growth, employment and peace. It begins by looking at research on the link between aid and economic growth and considers how aid can assist Africa better integrate into the global economy. The chapter also highlights the role of infrastructure in building climate change resilience before concluding with an assessment of the future role for aid to Africa. This chapter examines the role that public policy initiatives—specifically anti-poverty transfers—have played in the reduction of poverty and inequality in Brazil.
A number of anti-poverty initiatives are considered in turn, and not just the widely known Bolsa Familia conditional cash transfer program. The analysis establishes that such transfers—including conditional cash transfers—have proved surprisingly effective, even helping to tackle long-standing income inequality. It is recognized that explicit anti-poverty initiatives were not the only drivers of the reduced incidence of poverty and inequality: factors such as growth and improved access to labor markets also played a role.
However, progress is now threatened by the recent economic and political crisis. It argues that since the implementation of an export-oriented approach, GDP growth in Mexico has lagged behind much of Latin America. The country has maintained a trade surplus with the United States, but has had growing deficits with the European Union and Asia.
Section 1 of this chapter examines the theoretical and policy proposal of the current EOI developed in Mexico since the late s, also relevant for the implementation of NAFTA in January of Section 2 analyzes the general trends in the mentioned variables since EOI strategies took place, and particularly for its most export-oriented sector, manufacturing. In this general context, section 3 discusses the structural changes of a specific sector, the yarn—textile—garment commodity chain, in order to understand the conditions and challenges of a concrete sector.
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Oxford Handbooks Online. Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search within my subject: Select Politics Urban Studies U. History Law Linguistics Literature. Music Neuroscience Philosophy Physical Sciences. Subscriber sign in. Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution. Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed. Your points will be added to your account once your order is shipped. Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book!
This two-volume original reference work provides a comprehensive overview of development economics and contains contributions by some of the leading scholars working in the field.
In addition to representing multidisciplinary interactions, this collection encompasses several different perspectives within development economics, so the reader can learn, for example, both about neoclassical approaches and dependency theories in the same volume. This makes the collection unique and all the more valuable. This is a very good reference collection, as the individual essays are informative and provide a good overall perspective on the topic that they set out to address. The extensive bibliography at the end of each essay adds further value to this collection. First, they highlight important connections between economic development and variables such as culture, warfare, and ethnicity, which are sometimes ignored by mainstream economists.
Second, they analyze the economic development experience of different regions such as Africa, Latin America, and East Asia. Highly recommended. Faruq, Choice. Help Centre. Track My Order. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist. Ships in 7 to 10 business days. Link Either by signing into your account or linking your membership details before your order is placed.
International Handbook of Development Economics, Volumes 1 & 2
Description Table of Contents Product Details Click on the cover image above to read some pages of this book! Meaning and Measurement of DevelopmentPaul Streeten2. Historical Perspectives on DevelopmentAmiya Bagchi3. Structural Change and DevelopmentMoshe Syrquin5. Classical Development TheoryJaime Ros9.
Theories of DependencyGabriel Palma StructuralismGabriel Palma Marxism and DevelopmentBob Sutcliffe Institutionalist Development EconomicsKen Jameson Sectoral Interactions in DevelopmentJorn Rattso Behrman and John Hoddinott Entrepreneurship and DevelopmentWayne Nafziger Natural Resources and DevelopmentRichard Auty Environment and DevelopmentJohn McPeak