Hydrotreating Technology for Pollution Control

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At the present, an increasing effort has been devoted to the development of recycling techniques and integral strategies. The existent recycling pathways are represented in Figure 1; each of them provides unique advantages that make it suitable for specific applications, locations and requirements. The mechanical recycling primary through re-extrusion of selected materials and secondary from mixed feedstock involves physical treatment aimed at reinserting the materials into the production cycle with low energy consumption and almost zero pollutant emission. The conversion methods of waste plastics into fuel tertiary depend on the types of plastics to be targeted and is commonly realized through processes schemes involving gasification and pyrolysis.

In general, the conversion of waste plastic into fuel requires non-hazardous and combustible feedstock. In this field, the incineration technique with energy recovery quaternary is the major competitor obtaining the best efficiencies with, on the higher hand, a severe impact on the environment due to release of harmful gases like dioxins, hydrogen chloride, particulate matters and carbon dioxide. In the thermochemical conversion process it is also possible to combine different feedstocks in hybrid schemes exploiting the value of low quality fuels.

The chloride content in the feedstock and the fluid dynamics are the main parameters to control. The application of thermo-chemical conversion can be represented through the scheme propose by Mastellone et al. The evaporated oil may also be further cracked with a catalyst. The boiling point of the produced oil is controlled by the operation conditions of the reactor, the type of reactor, and presence of catalyst. Commonly, the hydrocarbons with high boiling points such as diesel, kerosene and gasoline are then fractionated through fractional distillation.

The two main problems associated with thermal cracking are the conversion limits and large molecular weight distribution in the pyrolysis product, resulting in limited market value. The main advantages of the catalytic process are reported in Table 2, while the main drawback is the loss in catalyst activity due to coke formation. The system has been coupled with a co-generative rankine cycle 2. It consists of a pre-treatment stage grinding and separation and a multi-stage melting and reduction process.

The HCl is processed in the hydrochloric acid production plant. The differences in the hydrotreating reactions, liquid product compositions, and gas product composition were also discussed. Hydrotreating , hydrocracking, and fluid catalytic cracking FCC catalysts are important components of petroleum refining processes. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking catalysts are used to improve the yield of high-quality light oil fractions from heavier crude oil and petroleum feedstocks containing high levels of impurities.

Airborne Pollutants

FCC catalysts improve the yield of higher octane gasoline from crude oil. Residuum hydrotreating and cracking catalysts are susceptible to irreversible deactivation caused by adsorption of sulfur and by metals impurities, such as vanadium and nickel. The gradual buildup of these impurities in a hydrotreating catalyst eventually plugs the pores and deactivates it. Nickel and vanadium adversely affect the behavior of cracking catalysts, reducing product yield and quality.

Replacing deactivated catalysts represents a significant cost in petroleum refining. Equally important are the costs and potential liabilities associated with treating and disposing spent catalysts. For example, recent US Environmental Protection Agency rulings have listed spent hydrotreating and hydrorefining catalysts as hazardous wastes. FCC catalysts, though more easily disposed of as road-base or as filler in asphalt and cement, are still an economic concern mainly because of the large volumes of spent catalysts generated. New processes are being considered to increase the useful life of catalysts or for meeting more stringent disposal requirements for spent catalysts containing metals.

Fresh and spent catalysts were provided by Phillips Petroleum. The FCC catalyst was a rare. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking of Athabasca bitumen derived heavy gas oils using NiMo catalyst supported on titania modified alumina. A trickle-bed reactor using 3 different gas oils from the Athabasca bitumen was used to test the initial activity of these catalysts. The study showed that nitrogen conversion increased for all the gas oils when Ti was incorporated into the alumina. With an increase in Ti concentrations from 0 to 6 wt per cent, nitrogen conversion increased from Nearly 86 wt per cent sulphur conversion was obtained for all Ti concentrations for LGO, while HGO and blended sulphur conversions were in the range of wt per cent.

Detailed hydrotreating and hydrocracking of HGO was then performed using the 6 wt per cent Ti modified catalyst because it achieved the maximum nitrogen conversion. This paper also presented the temperature, pressure and liquid hourly space velocity for this catalyst along with the maximum nitrogen and sulphur conversions. Results were compared with those of commercial catalysts. BioDiesel is methyl ester of Investigation of a model feed for hydrotreating of oils and fats. Biodiesel production is rising worldwide due to soaring oil prices, environmental concerns and desire to increase security of fuel supply.

The most common way to produce biodiesel is by transesterification of oils and fats; however it can also be produced by the hydrotreatment of oils and fats Reuse of Hydrotreating Spent Catalyst. All hydro treating catalysts used in petroleum refining processes gradually lose activity through coking, poisoning by metal, sulfur or halides or lose surface area from sintering at high process temperatures. Waste hydrotreating catalyst, which have been used in re-refining of waste lube oil at Alexandria Petroleum Company after 5 years lifetime compared with the same fresh catalyst were used in the present work.

The leaching experiments are conducting on the de coked extrude [un crushed] spent catalyst samples. These steps are carried out in order to rejuvenate the spent catalyst to be reused in other reactions. Characterization of upgraded fast pyrolysis oak oil distillate fractions from sulfided and non-sulfided catalytic hydrotreating. Olarte, Mariefel V. Catalytic hydroprocessing of pyrolysis oils from biomass produces hydrocarbons that can be considered for liquid fuel production.

This process requires removal of oxygen and cracking of the heavier molecular weight bio- oil constituents into smaller fragments at high temperatures and pressures under hydrogen. A comprehensive understanding of product oils is useful to optimize cost versus degree of deoxygenation.

Additionally, a better understanding of the chemical composition of the distillate fractions can open up other uses of upgraded oils for potentially higher-value chemical streams. We present in this paper the characterization data for five well-defined distillate fractions of two hydroprocessed oils with different oxygen levels: a low oxygen content LOC, 1. Our results also show that the use of sulfided catalysts directly affects the S content of the lightest distillate fraction.

These results can be used to direct future research on refinery integration and production of value-added product from specific upgraded oil streams. The primary method to remove sulfur , improve cetane index and reduce aromatic content of gas oil I diesel is hydro processing.

The operating conditions were varied in order to study the impact of these processes conditions temperature degree C, hydrogen pressure bar, and hourly space velocity 0. Hydrothermal liquefaction oil and hydrotreated product from pine feedstock characterized by heteronuclear two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and FT-ICR mass spectrometry. Sudasinghe, Nilusha; Cort, John R. FT-ICR MS resolves thousands of compounds in complex oils and provides unparalleled compositional details for individual molecules for identification of compound class heteroatom content , type number of rings plus double bonds to carbon or double bond equivalents DBE and carbon number degree of alkylation.

Heteronuclear 1HC NMR spectroscopy provides one-bond and multiple-bond correlations between pairs of 1H and 13C chemical shifts that are characteristic of different organic functional groups. Taken together this information provides a picture of the chemical composition of these oils. Pyrolysis crude oil product from pine wood was characterized for comparison.

A total of N1, O1 and O2 compounds were observed as products of hydrotreatment. Owusu-Boakye, A. The degree of hydrogenation of aromatics in light gas oil LGO feed from Athabasca bitumen was examined using a two-stage process. The catalysts were used under a range of temperature and pressure condition. Temperature and liquid hourly space velocity ranged from to degrees C and 1. Pressure was kept constant at Product samples from different feedstocks were analyzed with respect to sulfur, nitrogen and aromatic content.

Gasoline selectivity and kinetic parameters for hydrodesulphurization HDS or hydrodenitrogenation HDN reactions for the feed materials were also compared. Kinetic analysis of the single-stage hydrotreating process showed that HDA and HDS activities were slowed by the presence of hydrogen sulphide that is produced as a by-product of the HDS process.

However, with inter-stage removal of hydrogen sulphide in the two-stage process , significant improvement of the HDA and HDS activities were noted. It was concluded that the experimental data was successfully predicted by the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic models. Characterization of catalytically hydrotreated coal liquid produced by solvolytic liquefaction in petroleum asphalt.

The hydrotreatment was carried out over a Co-Mo catalyst in order to upgrade moderately and selectively the coal-derived fraction. Structural analyses of the fractions before and after hydrotreatment were compared to reveal what kinds of chemical reactions had taken place during hydro treatment. The major reactions of the coal derived fraction are hydrodeoxygenation and hydrodealkylation, both of which are effective for depolymerization.

No significant hydrogenation on aromatic rings was observed. Hydrotreated liquid was further pyrolyzed to obtain oils and cokes of high quality. Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids. Lott, S. To develop a database relating hydrotreating parameters to feed and product quality by experimentally evaluating options for hydrotreating whole coal liquids, distillate cuts of coal liquids, petroleum, and blends of coal liquids with petroleum.

Process of deparaffining oils. Sulfur and octane trade off in FCC naphta conventional hydrotreating. Badra, C. A model to predict the change of octane numbers expected in an FCC naphtha hydrotreating process as a function of the hydroprocessing severity degree of sulfur removal and the type of naphtha expressed as the sulfur content and bromine number in the feedstock is presented.

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When considering hydrotreating as an option for processing their catalytic naphthas, refiners search for the proper balance between the desired reduction of sulfur and olefins and the resulting undesired reduction of octane RON and MON. This paper provides simple tools to study and analyze these study cases and to assess the sulfur-octane trade offs. Biodiesel has gained popularity in North America over the past decade, but the ester content of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester FAME fuel creates both cold weather and water- based operational issues.

Process for extracting oil shale. A process is described for recovering bituminous material from oil shale, characterized in that the oil shale is extracted with wood spirits oil byproduct of woodspirit rectification , if necessary in admixture with other solvents in the cold or the hot. Biodiesel production by the transesterification of oils and fats with an alcohol to fatty acid alkyl esters is rapidly increasing worldwide. Plant oils are usually suited for transesterification, but feedstocks from waste products like trap greases and abattoir wastes are difficult to react due This protocol represents a facile method of studying hydrotreating of waste fats and oils for biodiesel production, which may be a viable alternative to current dominating transesterification technology.

Hydrotreating of triglyceride containing gasoils. Krar, M. Because of the disadvantages of biodiesel, it is necessary to develop transformation methods, where excellent quality gas oil blending components are produced from triglycerides. An especially favourable opportunity could be the combination of the conversion of the triglycerides with a simultaneous upgrading of the gas oil stream.

The main goal of our experiments was to investigate the feasibility of these two processes simultaneously in one catalytic system. In our experiments, sunflower oil max. On the investigated catalyst under optimal process parameter combinations, product mixtures in the gas oil boiling point range with yield and excellent quality was produced successfully. The reason is that the triglycerides were converted into normal paraffins, which are having high cetane number and poor cold-flow properties.

It was concluded, that the blending of the sunflower oil into the gas oil did not reduce the HDS and HDA activity of the catalyst, however, its HDN activity significantly decreased. Full Text Available A lot of chemical, petrochemical or refining processes require contact between three phases : a liquid feed, a gaseous reactant and a solid catalyst. Frequently, the catalyst activity is reduced by poisoning of active sites or coke deposits. This is especially the case with the processes used in heavy residual oils hydrotreating. As the catalyst life is reduced, the substitution or regeneration of the inactive catalyst is frequently necessary.

Various solutions, such, as fixed beds used with swing reactors, fluidized beds, or moving beds with down flow of the catalyst and co-current or counter-current of the feed, can be proposed to perform this task with a minimum of time and production losses. A theoretical comparison between the performances of the various technologies has been made by means of a detailed simulation of the behaviour of each of these catalytic beds over a long period.

Of course, in the models, some assumptions are necessary, like the ideal fluid and solids flows. Various pilot plant data are of course used in order to build the kinetic part of the models. This comparison shows a marked advantage for the moving bed with counter-current flow between feed and catalyst owing to the systematic optimum use of the catalyst potential. Consequently, a series of experiments was made on various sized cold mockups designed to simulate counter-current movind beds.

These experiments were necessary to demonstrate the feasability of the process , to specify the relations among gas and liquid superficial velocities, particles and fluids properties, and hydrodynamic regimes, and to develop the scale-up rules. The main goal is to secure a uniform distribution of the two fluids through out the whole bed of catalyst, and at the same time a regular progression of. Analysis of the reactivity of sulphur compounds in petroleum cuts: kinetics and modelling of hydro-treating ; Analyse de la reactivite des composes soufres dans les coupes petrolieres: cinetique et modelisation de l'hydrotraitement.

The study of the hydro-treating of middle distillates comprised the following steps: - Identification and reactivity study of the sulphur compounds present in these petroleum cuts; - Modelling of the process by a chemical kinetic approach.

ROBUSTNESS, RELIABILITY AND SAFETY

The hydro-treating of middle distillates is a refining process that allows elimination of organic compounds containing sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen and metals. The process also hydrogenates the aromatic compounds providing improved cetane index gas- oils while respecting the regulations that severely limit the content of sulphur compounds. The extension and the improvement of a kinetic model for the hydro-treating of LCO gas- oils light cycle oil gas- oils are presented in this work.

In order to improve the hydro-desulfurization model predictions, a detailed identification of the sulphur compounds contained in LCO gas- oils was carried out using gas chromatography with a sulphur chemiluminescence detector GC-SCD. The most refractory sulphur compounds alkyl-di-benzothiophenes were identified and lumped into different families. Based on a lumped reaction scheme with a Langmuir-Hinshelwood representation, the model takes into account the influence of temperature, total pressure and hydrogen sulphide partial pressure on the reaction rates for hydro-desulfurization, hydro-denitrogenation and hydro-de-aromatization.

The analytical study of the sulphur compounds was also extended to the case of straight run gas- oils SR. For these feedstocks, a method using high-resolution mass spectrometry coupled with gas chromatography GC-HRMS was developed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a processing pathway for converting biomass into infrastructure-compatible hydrocarbon biofuels. This design case investigates production of fast pyrolysis oil from biomass and the upgrading of that bio- oil as a means for generating infrastructure-ready renewable gasoline and diesel fuels.

This study has been conducted using similar methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol. The overall concept and specific processing steps were selected because significant data on this approach exists in the public literature. The analysis evaluates technology that has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale or is in early stages of commercialization.

Environmental Impact Guidelines for New Source Petroleum Refineries : Draft Report for Review

The fast pyrolysis of biomass is already at an early stage of commercialization, while upgrading bio- oil to transportation fuels has only been demonstrated in the laboratory and at small engineering development scale. Advanced methods of pyrolysis, which are under development, are not evaluated in this study. These may be the subject of subsequent analysis by OBP. The processing steps include: 1. Feed drying and size reduction 2. Fast pyrolysis to a highly oxygenated liquid product 3. Hydrocracking of the heavy portion of the stable hydrocarbon oil 5.

Distillation of the hydrotreated and hydrocracked oil into gasoline and diesel fuel blendstocks 6. Hydrogen production to support the hydrotreater reactors. The "as received" feedstock to the pyrolysis plant will be "reactor ready". This development will likely further decrease the cost of producing the fuel. An important sensitivity is the possibility of co-locating the plant with an existing refinery. In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps: feed. This study has been conducted using the same methodology and underlying basis assumptions as the previous design cases for ethanol.

In this case, the plant consists only of the first three steps. Comparison among hydrotreating technologies to produce high quality diesel; Comparacao de tecnologias de hidrotratamento para obtencao de diesel de alta qualidade. Lima, Jorge R. However the Campos Basin crude has very individual characteristics - when compared with the well known Arabian Light - and therefore it became necessary to acquire the knowledge of its behavior together with its refined products in traditional processes , in which we include the Hydrotreating HDT.

The main objective of this work is to analyze the HDT process schemes and its performance when operating with such a different feedstock, in order to achieve the product's quality requirements. Catalytic hydrotreating of lignin with water-soluble molybdenum catalyst. Osmaa, A.


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The main compounds in the product oil were phenols 8. Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. The U. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels.

Between and , INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems.

Olive oil and pomace olive oil processing. Full Text Available Olive oil processing is introduced in food industry at the end of the nineteenth century and a lot of improvements have been initialized since. The steps for refining are, settling, neutralizing, bleaching and deodorizing.

Monitoring of effective refining and the use of processes that remove less minor components of olive oil , like polyphenols and tocopherols are some issues for the process. The stringent environmental requirements and the target of industry for continuous improvements and cost savings, forcing equipment manufacturers to innovations and new products. The complete removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during pomace oil process and the utilization of distillates are also important areas for research and development.

El procesado del aceite de oliva se introdujo en la industria alimentaria a finales del siglo diecinueve y desde entonces se han realizado considerables mejoras.


  1. Algorithms for Continuous Optimization: The State of the Art?
  2. Honeywell UOP Providing Hydrotreating Catalysts For ENAP Refinery in Chile | Honeywell UOP.
  3. Pollution Control.
  4. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio- oils. Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio- oil , comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio- oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating.

    The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio- oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio- oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio- oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio- oil.

    Process for oil shale retorting. Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel.

    The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil , a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam. Quality characteristics of alternative diesel from hydrotreatment of used frying oils. This paper examines the properties of alternative diesel fuel that is derived from the hydrotreatment of used frying oils UFO. Used frying oil is a difficult feedstock for biodiesel production. The hydrotreating of UFO converts triglycerides mainly into normal paraffins in the diesel fuel range. The results obtained show that the use of hydrotreated UFO has many advantages in comparison conventional diesel.

    Furthermore, this finding complies with the lower value of density in comparison to diesel, reinforcing the paraffinic nature of this fuel, comprising straight chain alkanes and negligible content of aromatic hydrocarbons in its composition. Due to the hydrotreating , these fuels do not contain olefinic bonds, therefore they are resistant to oxidation, permitting long term storage abilities. Despite these benefits, there are some considerations from the use of HFOs.

    Hydrotreating is a process which successfully removes heteroatoms such as S, N, O and eliminates the existence of double unstable bonds, rendering to fuel appreciable characteristics. Unfortunately, these high ignition quality oils suffer from lower lubricity and worse cold flow properties in comparison to diesel, making their use during winter period inevitable. These problems could be addressed by blending hydrotreated UFO with regular diesel.

    A compromise should be found in order to promote a renewable fuel with lower cetane number but with much better lubricity in order to meet the EN European Standard regarding the main quality characteristics of the final fuel. Process for treating oil shale. Solution medium suitable for bitumen or paraffin is beaten up in a rapid hammer mill until all or most all of the oil or bitumen is emulsified. The emulsion is separated by filter-pressing and centrifuging from the solid shale residue and the oil or bitumen is again separated from the emulsion medium by heating, acidulating, standing, or centrifuging, and then in known ways is further separated, refined, and worked up.

    Characterization of Hydrotreated Fast Pyrolysis Liquids. This paper focuses on analytical methods to determine the composition of hydrotreated fast pyrolysis liquids.

    From biomass to fuels: Hydrotreating of oxygenated compounds. Gandarias, I. Biomass is a renewable alternative to fossil raw materials in the production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Pyrolyzed biomass derived liquids contain oxygenated molecules that need to be removed to improve the stability of these liquids.

    A hydrotreating process , hydrodeoxygenation HDO , is commonly used for this purpose. In addition, product distribution and catalyst stability are studied against changes in the feed composition, the solvent, and the catalyst pretreatment. Process for complete conversion of coal oils , shale oils , etc. A process is described for complete conversion of mineral coal oil , shale oil , and other similar oils in pitch, characterized by these oils being mixed with a nonvolatile substance with a boiling point on the average higher than the boiling point of the oil to be treated, and then being heated under pressure with the introduction of air, whereby the heating is interrupted if necessary on account of the known exothermic reaction and the conversion of the oil in the pitch or its distillation can be carried out without further heating.

    Heavy oils processing materials requirements crude processing. Over time, recommended best practices for crude unit materials selection have evolved to accommodate new operating requirements, feed qualities, and product qualities. The shift to heavier oil processing is one of the major changes in crude feed quality occurring over the last 20 years. The three major types of crude unit corrosion include sulfidation attack, naphthenic acid attack, and corrosion resulting from hydrolyzable chlorides. Heavy oils processing makes all three areas worse. Heavy oils have higher sulfur content; higher naphthenic acid content; and are more difficult to desalt, leading to higher chloride corrosion rates.

    Materials selection involves two major criteria, meeting required safety standards, and optimizing economics of the overall plant. Proper materials selection is only one component of a plant integrity approach. Materials selection cannot eliminate all corrosion. Proper materials selection requires appropriate support from other elements of an integrity protection program. The elements of integrity preservation include: materials selection type and corrosion allowance ; management limits on operating conditions allowed; feed quality control; chemical additives for corrosion reduction; and preventive maintenance and inspection PMI.

    The following discussion must be taken in the context of the application of required supporting work in all the other areas. Within that context, specific materials recommendations are made to minimize corrosion due to the most common causes in the crude unit. Developments in hydroconversion processes for residues. Seed Oil. Full Text Available The hydrotreating process of vegetable oils HPVO involves the transformation of vegetable oil triglycerides into straight chain alkanes, which are carried out by deoxygenation reactions, generating multiple hydrocarbon compounds, cuts similar to heavy vacuum oil.

    The HPVO is applied to Jatropha curcas oil on USY zeolite supported with gamma alumina and platinum deposition on the catalytic as hydrogenation component. The acid of additional activity of the supports allows the development of catalytic routes that the intervention of catalytic centers of different nature reaches the desired product.

    IsoTherming® Diesel Hydrotreating Technology

    The products of the hydrotreating reaction with Jatropha curcas seed oil triglycerides were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by mass spectroscopy to identify and analyze the generated intermediate and final hydrocarbon compounds. Process for desulfurizing shale oil , etc. A process is described for the desulfurizing of shale oil or tar, with recovery of valuable oils and hydrocarbons, characterized in that the raw material is heated in an autoclave to a pressure of atmospheres or more.

    Electron microscopy studies of activation mechanisms in hydrotreating catalysis. The aim of this work is to remedy the limited fundamental insight that exists in terms of the activation and formation of hydrotreating catalysts utilized in industrial oil refining of crude oil.

    This is done through numerous studies of the conversion of industrially relevant molybdenum oxide MoS2 forms in one of two conformations of the two-dimensional atomic structure that is either in an orientation parallel or perpendicular to the nanoparticle surface. Both the initial growth of MoS2 and the subsequent formation of multi-layered structures is addressed This shows that initial growth tends to form an apparent bond between the MoO2 surface and the MoS2 edge and that the layer size increases through coalescence.

    For multi-layered structures, it is found that MoS2 layers grow through a layer-under-layer mechanism, where defects in the outer layers enable Included were feed characteristics, upgrader products, process schemes and their overall economics and upgrader technologies in use, including coking, deasphalting, hydrocracking, hydrotreating and visbreaking. Advantages and disadvantages of the upgrader technologies were highlighted. As far as the product is concerned, much of it is destined to U.

    Foremost among these are the high softening product of asphalt from visbroken products, questionable commercial feasibility of the low yield of pitch, and problems in the disposal of asphalt. Severe visbreaking also yields unstable products. Details of Mobil Canada's oil sands project were also summarized 2 tabs.

    Process of recovering shale oil. A process is disclosed for recovering oil from shale rock by means of channels cut in the shale deposit, to which heat is carried for warming the shale mass and which are separated from the fume channels formed in the shale by parts of the shale rock, characterized in that heating elements are put down in the heating channels, which occupy less cross section than these channels, and in the so-formed space between the channel wall and the heating element a filling is placed, which facilitates heat transfer between the heating element and the shale and simultaneously prevents a streaming of the oily product gasified out of the shale from working into the heating element and stopping it.

    Tendency of lubricating oil manufacturing process. The manufacturing method of paraffin base oil and the tendency are explained in details. The base oil is made from the distillate which is obtained through solvent deasphalting of the vacuum distillated residual oil. The refining process of those material is classified into the two different process steps such as refining and modifying process step in which the quality of the material is improved while eliminating unstable resin, aromatic compound, and sulfur contained in the material, and dewaxing process step in which the wax contained in the material is removed.

    The former is combination of the two different process steps such as solvent extraction process and hydrogen finishing process or hydroforming process. The latter is a combination of the two different process steps such as solvent dewaxing and catalytic dewaxing hydro-dewaxing. Various examples of reactions, features and industrial processes are given in accordance with each of these process steps. Regarding the tendency toward the future, the kinds of materials will be expanded in the way that naphthene base oil will adopted as the material oil along with diversification of the quality of lubricating oil , and the processing technology including two-stage processing , catalytic dewaxing, etc.

    Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design. Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

    Oil shales and the nuclear process heat. Two of the primary energy sources most dited as alternatives to the traditional fossil fuels are oil shales and nuclear energy. Several proposed processes for the extraction and utilization of oil and gas from shale are given. Possible efficient ways in which nuclear heat may be used in these processes are discussed [pt.

    Investigation and Modelling of Diesel Hydrotreating Reactions. Hydrogenation of fused aromatic rings are known to be fast, and it is possible, that the reaction rates are limited by either internal or external mass transfer. An experiment conducted at industrial temperatures and pressure, using In order to produce ULSD it is necessary to remove sulfur from some of the most refrac- tive sulfur compounds, such as sterically hindered dibenzothiophenes.

    Basic nitrogen com- pounds Experimental results are pre- sented, showing the effect of 3 different nitrogen compounds, acridine, 1,4-dimethylcarabazole and 3-methylindole, on the hydrodesulfurization of a real feed and of a model compound, 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene. It is shown Trickle bed reactor model to simulate the performance of commercial diesel hydrotreating unit. Murali; R. Voolapalli; N. Ravichander; D. Gokak; N. Choudary [Bharat Petroleum Corporation Ltd. A two phase mathematical model was developed to simulate the performance of bench scale and commercial hydrotreating reactors.

    Major hydrotreating reactions, namely, hydrodesulphurization, hydrodearomatization and olefins saturation were modeled. Experiments were carried out in a fixed bed reactor to study the effect of different process variables and these results were used for estimating kinetic parameters. The model was validated with plant operating data, under close to ultra low sulphur levels by correctly accounting for feed vaporization in heat balance relations and appropriate use of hydrodynamic correlations.

    The model could predict the product quality, reactor bed temperature profiles and chemical hydrogen consumption in commercial plant adequately.

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    Delay oil oxidation during frying process. Therefore, rosemary extract methanolic extract was analyzed by HPLC technique for identification of flavonoids compounds as a specific active compounds; gives high protection to frying oil. Physical and chemical properties, including refractive index RI. The results indicated that; rosemary extract contained about eight flavonoids compounds hypersoid, rutin, 3-OH flavon, luleotin, kempferol, sakarutin, querectrin and apeginin. Addition of RE or RRBO to frying oil caused delay oil oxidation during frying process compared with frying oil without any addition.

    Howe, Daniel T. Feedstock composition can affect final fuel yields and quality for the fast pyrolysis and hydrotreatment upgrading pathway. However, previous studies have focused on individual unit operations rather than the integrated system. Hydrogen consumption during hydrotreating , a major factor in the economic feasibility of the integrated process , ranged from 0. Process for recovering oil from shale, etc. A process is described for recovering oil from oil -shale and the like, by the direct action of the hot gases obtained by burning the carbonized shale residue.

    It is immediately carried out in separate adjacent chambers, through which the feed goes from one to the other intermittently, from the upper to the lower. Process for treating oil -chalk. Characterization and utilization of hydrotreated products produced from the Whiterocks Utah tar sand bitumen-derived liquid. The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the mined and crushed ore from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor.

    The purpose was to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variable. A sulfided nickel-molybendum on alumina hydrodenitrogenation catalyst was used in all experiments. Moderately severe operating conditions were employed; that is, high reaction temperature K high reactor pressure Detailed chemical structures of the bitumen-derived liquid feedstock and the hydrotreated total liquid products were determined by high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses.

    In addition, normal and branched alkanes and alkenes and partially dehydrogenated hydroaromatics were identified in the bitumen-derived liquid. Olefinic bonds were not observed in the hydrotreated product and monoaromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant aromatic species. The properties of the jet fuel fractions from the hydrotreated products met most of the jet fuel specifications. The cetane indices indicated these fractions would be suitable for use as diesel fuels.

    Profitability Analysis of Soybean Oil Processes. Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Cash flow analysis is used to estimate the profitability of a manufacturing venture. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value NPV , break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation.

    The positive NPV and reasonable payback time represent a profitable process , and provide an acceptable projection for real operating. Additionally, the capacity of the process is another critical factor. The extruding-expelling process and hexane extraction are the two typical approaches used in industry. When the capacities of annual oil production are larger than 12 and million kg respectively, these two processes are profitable. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process EAEP , is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production.

    Full Text Available Soybean oil production is the basic process for soybean applications. Besides capital investments, operating costs, and revenues, the interest rate is the factor to estimate the net present value NPV, break-even points, and payback time; which are benchmarks for profitability evaluation. The solvent free approach, known as enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process EAEP, is profitable when the capacity is larger than 17 million kg of annual oil production. Use of polymers in oil recovery processes. Water-soluble polymers are used extensively in various stages of gas and oil production operations, typical examples being enhanced oil recovery, water production control, and well drilling.

    A variety of polymetric materials, both naturally occurring and synthetic ones, are currently used; guar and cellulose derivatives, xanthan gum, polysaccharides, polyacrylamides and others. In this work, only the application of polymeric materials to enhanced recovery processes is discussed. Environmental control costs for oil shale processes. The studies reported herein are intended to provide more certainty regarding estimates of the costs of controlling environmental residuals from oil shale technologies being readied for commercial application.

    The need for this study was evident from earlier work conducted by the Office of Environment for the Department of Energy Oil Shale Commercialization Planning, Environmental Readiness Assessment in mid At that time there was little reliable information on the costs for controlling residuals and for safe handling of wastes from oil shale processes. The uncertainties in estimating costs of complying with yet-to-be-defined environmental standards and regulations for oil shale facilities are a critical element that will affect the decision on proceeding with shale oil production. Until the regulatory requirements are fully clarified and processes and controls are investigated and tested in units of larger size, it will not be possible to provide definitive answers to the cost question.

    Thus, the objective of this work was to establish ranges of possible control costs per barrel of shale oil produced, reflecting various regulatory, technical, and financing assumptions. Two separate reports make up the bulk of this document. One report, prepared by the Denver Research Institute, is a relatively rigorous engineering treatment of the subject, based on regulatory assumptions and technical judgements as to best available control technologies and practices. The other report examines the incremental cost effect of more conservative technical and financing alternatives.

    An overview section is included that synthesizes the products of the separate studies and addresses two variations to the assumptions. Since the commercial After activation by sulfidation the activity of the catalysts were measured for the three hydrotreating reactions hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation and hydrogenation using a model oil containing dibenzothiophene, indole and naphthalene in n-heptane solution.

    The best catalyst was the FSP-produced material This paper describes a mathematical model of flow-related hydrodynamic processes for rheologically complex high-viscosity bitumen oil and oil -water suspensions and presents methods to improve the design and performance of oil pipelines. The first stage DRU operates at mild thermal cracking conditions, yielding a light overhead product and a heavy residuum or bottoms material.

    These bottoms flow to the second stage continuous coker that operates at severe pyrolysis conditions, yielding light pyrolyzate and coke. The DRU test program was completed and a processing envelope developed. These results were used for process assessment and for scaleup. Tests in the continuous coker were intended to.

    Process of decomposing an oil mixture. A process is described for the decomposition of oil mixtures, and the like, by means of alcohol, characterized in that the subject mixture is brought into solution in high-grade alcohol, and this solution is washed countercurrent with dilute alcohol. Pollutant in palm oil production process. Water systems are also contaminated by POME if it is released into nonstandard ponds or rivers where it endangers the lives of fish and water fowl.

    In this paper, the environmental bottlenecks faced by palm oil production were investigated by analyzing the data collected from wet extraction palm oil mills POMs located in Malaysia. This amount can be reduced to kg CO2eq by capturing biogases. Other ways to reduce the pollution caused by POME, including the installation of wet scrubber vessels and increasing the performance of biogas recovery and biogas upgrading systems, are studied in this paper. Around 0. From 1 ton crude palm oil , kg CO2eq GHGs are generated, which can be reduced to kg CO2eq by installation of biogas capturing equipment.

    One approach to oil markets is to treat oil as an asset, besides its role as a commodity. Speculative and nonspeculative activity by investors in the derivatives markets could be responsible for a sizable increase in oil prices. This paper recognizes both the consumption and investment aspects of crude oil and proposes Levy processes for modeling uncertainty and options pricing. Calibration to crude oil futures' options shows high volatility of oil futures prices, fat-tailed, and right-skewed Role of hydrotreating products in deposition of fine particles in reactors.

    Wang, S. Hydrotreating reactions may affect the deposition of fine particles, which can eventually lead to reactor plugging. Iron sulfide deposited rapidly in the packed bed because the mineral surface did not retain a stabilizing layer of asphaltenic material. Addition of water, to test the role of hydrodeoxygenation, doubled the deposition of clay particles by reducing the surface coating of organic material. Neither ammonia or quinoline had any effect on particle deposition, therefore, hydrodenitrogenation did not affect particle behavior.

    Calendula oil processing : seed classification, oil extraction, refining process development and oil quality aspects. The difference in Calendula oil quality from fractions obtained after seed classification is enormous. This can be. Process of transforming into light oils heavy oils from carbonization of lignites, coals, etc. A process is described for transforming into light oils the heavy oils coming from the carbonization of lignites, peats, coals, and shales, and heavy oils from original minerals and vegetables, consisting of heating the heavy oils or tars in the presence of one or more solid or liquid substances conveniently chosen, with a veiw to effect distillation of the oils under atmospheric pressure at an appropriate temperature, the solids or liquid substances favoring the formation of light products under the influence of heat, being preferably added to the oil before admitting it to the retort and heating, so that the light oils are obtained from the heavy oils in a single operation.

    Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil , camelina oil and algal oil. Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid FFA is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids.

    To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system.

    The effects of reaction temperature, water-to- oil ratio ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate , and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Applications of Enzymes in Oil and Oilseed Processing. Enzymes, through the last years research and development, have been widely explored for the uses in oil and oilseed processing. Following the conventional processing technology from oilseeds, the oil can be produced through pressing or solvent extraction.

    The crude oil is then refined to meet The oil can be also modified to meet functional or even nutritional needs. In each of those steps, enzymes have been used in industry successfully. For the oil processing stage, enzymes have been used to destroy the cell structure so that makes the oil release easier, where The good story in industry is the fish oil and olive oil processing.

    Good quality and higher oil yield have been achieved through the use of enzymes in the processing stages. For the refining stage, the use of enzymes for degumming has Determination and modeling of the influence of the fluid-dynamics in hydro-treating bench scale plants. At an industrial scale, the hydro-treating of oil fractions is carried out in multiphase fixed bed reactors. The oil and hydrogen cross the catalyst bed, usually in co-current downflow.

    Since the product specifications are steadily becoming more severe, the testing of new catalysts and of modified operating conditions in pilot plants becomes increasingly important. Although these pilot plants are frequently by a factor of smaller than the industrial units, they still have to allow the up-scaling to industrial units. In the literature relatively low conversion degrees in pilot plants are frequently reported, especially in downflow. The significantly lower fluid velocities in pilot plants seem to be responsible for such differences, as the influence of fluid-dynamic non-idealities and of the extra-particle mass transfer phenomena increases with a decrease of the fluid velocities.

    In the present work, the influence of important fluid-dynamic non-idealities on the hydro-treating of gas oil fractions in pilot plants was examined. This was done on the one hand in experiments with different pilot plants and on the other hand by simulations with an especially developed multiphase model. The phenomena were considered as well in an isolated manner. In order to examine any interactions with the chemical reactions, they were also studied in a reactive system. This methodology was applied to the phenomena, 'axial dispersion'and 'gas-liquid mass transfer'.

    Corrosion resistance of heat exchange equipment in hydrotreating Orenburg Condensate. The authors study the corrosion resistance of materials of construction and select appropriate materials for the fabrication of heat exchange equipment that will be serviceable under hydrotreating conditions. This paper discusses the Orenburg condensate hydrotreating unit which has been shut down repeatedly for repair because of corrosion damage to components of heat exchangers in the reactor section: tube bundles 08Kh18N10T steel , corrugated compensators 12Kh18N10T steel , and pins of the floating heads 37Kh13N8G8MFB steel.

    The authors recommend that the tube bundles and the compensators in heat exchangers in the reaction section should be fabricated of 08Kh21N6M2T or 10Kh17N13M2T steel. The pins have been replaced by new pins made of 10Kh17N13 X M2T steel, increasing the service life from months to 2 years. Prior to these conversion processes , hydrotreating is required in order to eliminate the impurities in VGOs.

    The hydrotreatment process enables to meet the environmental specifications total sulfur contents and to prevent nitrogen poisoning of conversion catalysts. In order to develop a kinet Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.

    We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.

    by Mario L. Occelli (Ed.)

    For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air. The coked catalysts were analyzed for surface area, pore volume, coronene adsorption and diffusivity, and their catalytic activity determined for hydrodesulfurization HDS , hydrodeoxygenation HDO and C-N hydrogenolysis CNH using model compounds.

    All of the above measurements decreased with increase in coke content. Property data indicate that some pores are blocked by coke and diffusivity results show narrowing of pore mouths with increasing coke content. A simple model of coke deactivation was developed to relate activity to coke content. Coke is envisioned as forming wedge-like deposits in the catalyst pores. The study was on economic analysis of palm oil processing in Owerri Agricultural zone of Imo State, it was designed to determine the costs and returns of palm oil processing in the area of study.

    Seventy five 75 palm oil processors were randomly sampled from the study location and a structured interview schedule was Atomic-scale investigation of the interaction of organic molecules with MoS 2 -based hydrotreating model catalysts. The aim of this work is to provide new insight into the formation, activation and reactivity of hydrotreating catalysts extensively used in the refinery for the conversion of heavy feedstocks and for improving the quality of the final oil products.

    This is done through numerous studies of the con This is done through numerous studies