My First Britannica Volume 11 - Birds, Insects, Reptiles and Aquatic Life
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He was born about , matriculated at Antwerp in , and died there in He, too, studied under Floris, and never settled abroad, or lost the hard and gaudy style which he inherited from his master. Ambrose, the third son of Nicholas of Herenthals, has bequeathed to us more specimens of his skill than Jerom or Franz the first.
He first started as a partner with Jerom at Fontainebleau, then he returned to Antwerp, where he passed for his gild in , and he lived at Antwerp till In both these pieces a fair amount of power is displayed, but marred by want of atmosphere and shadow or by hardness of line and gaudiness of tone. There is not a trace in the three painters named of the influence of the revival which took place under the lead of Rubens.
Franz Francken the first trained three sons to his profession, the eldest of whom, though he practised as a master of gild at Antwerp from to , left no visible trace of his labours behind. Jerom the second took service with his uncle Ambrose. These pictures are usually of a small size, and are found in considerable numbers in continental collections. Franz Francken the second was born in In he entered the gild, of which he subsequently became the president, and in he died.
From to many of his pieces are signed F. It is in F. But F. Francken the second, as before observed, always clung to small surfaces; and though he gained some of the freedom of the moderns, he lost but little of the dryness or gaudiness of the earlier Italo-Flemish revivalists. Francken the third, the last of his name who deserves to be recorded, passed in the Antwerp gild in and died at Antwerp in His practice was chiefly confined to adding figures to the architectural or landscape pieces of other artists.
As Franz Pourbus sometimes put in the portrait figures for Franz Francken the second, so Franz Francken the third often introduced the necessary personages into the works of Pieter Neefs the younger museums of St Petersburg, Dresden and the Hague. Army reforms were at once undertaken, and measures were initiated in France to place the armament and equipment of the troops on a level with the requirements of the times. The chassepot, a new breech-loading rifle, immensely superior to the Prussian needle-gun, was issued; the artillery trains were thoroughly overhauled, and a new machine-gun, the mitrailleuse , from which much was expected, introduced.
Wide schemes of reorganization due mainly to Marshal Niel were set in motion, and, since these required time to mature, recourse was had to foreign alliances in the hope of delaying the impending rupture. Italy was also to be included in the alliance, and it was agreed that in case of hostilities the French armies should concentrate in northern Bavaria, where the Austrians and Italians were to join them, and the whole immense army thus formed should march via Jena on Berlin. To what extent Austria and Italy committed themselves to this scheme remains uncertain, but that the emperor Napoleon believed in their bona fides is beyond doubt.
On these lines plans for the strategic deployment of the Prussian army were prepared by the General Staff and kept up to date year by year as fresh circumstances e. The campaign was actually opened on a revise of , to which was added, on the 6th of May , a secret memorandum for the General Staff. Under the German organization then existing the preliminary to all active operations was of necessity full and complete mobilization.
But no such delay imposed itself of necessity upon the French, and a vigorous offensive was so much Strategic deployment of the German armies. On the whole, Moltke concluded that the enemy could not undertake this offensive before the eighth day after mobilization. Since, however, the transport of the bulk of the Prussian forces could not begin till the ninth day, their ultimate line of detrainment need not be fixed until the French plans were disclosed, and, as it was important to strike at the earliest moment possible, the deployment was provisionally fixed to be beyond the Rhine on the line Wittlich-Neunkirchen-Landau.
Of the thirteen North German corps three had to be left behind to guard the eastern frontier and the coast, one other, the VIII. These ten corps were grouped in three armies, and as the French might violate Belgian neutrality or endeavour to break into southern Germany, two corps Prussian Guard and Saxon XII. If Belgian neutrality remained unmolested, the reserve would join the III. As in this wheel the army on the right formed the pivot and was required only to stand fast, two corps only were allotted to it; two corps for the present formed the III.
When 16thth July the South German states decided to throw in their lot with the rest, their three corps were allotted to the III. On the French side no such plan of operations was in existence when on the night of the 15th of July Krieg mobil was telegraphed all over Prussia. An outline scheme had indeed been prepared as a basis for agreement with Austria and Positions of the French forces. Italy, but practically no details were fixed, and the troops were without transport and supplies. Nevertheless, since speed was the essence of the contract, the troops 7 were hurried up without waiting for their reserves, and delivered, as Moltke had foreseen, just where the lie of the railways and convenience of temporary supply dictated, and the Prussian Intelligence Department was able to inform Moltke on the 22nd of July seventh day of mobilization that the French stood from right to left in the following order, on or near the frontier:.
If therefore they began a forward movement on the 23rd eighth day the case foreseen by Moltke had arisen, and it became necessary to detrain the II. Without waiting for further confirmation of this intelligence, Moltke, with the consent of the king, altered the arrangements accordingly, a decision which, though foreseen, exercised the gravest influence on the course of events. As it happened this decision was premature, for the French could not yet move.
Supply trains had to be organized by requisition from the inhabitants, and even arms and ammunition procured for such reserves as had succeeded in joining. But the French generals were unequal to their responsibilities. To meet this pressing danger, which came to his knowledge during the course of the 29th, Moltke sent a confidential staff officer, Colonel v. Verdy du Vernois, to the III. Fortunately for the Germans, the French intelligence service not only failed to inform the staff of this extraordinary opportunity, but it allowed itself to be hypnotized by the most amazing rumours.
In imagination they saw armies of , men behind every forest, and, to guard against these dangers, the French troops were marched and counter-marched along the frontiers in the vain hope of discovering an ideal defensive position which should afford full scope to the power of their new weapons. As these delays were exerting a most unfavourable effect on public opinion not only in France but throughout Europe, the emperor decided on the 1st of August to initiate a movement towards the Saar, chiefly as a guarantee of good faith to the Austrians and Italians.
Its effect, however, proved far-reaching. The Prussian staff could not conceive that nothing lay behind this display of five whole divisions, and immediately took steps to meet the expected danger. Meanwhile, Steinmetz, left without instructions and fearing for the safety of the II. Whilst this order was in process of execution, Moltke, aware that the II. Steinmetz obeyed, though bitterly resenting the idea of retreat.
This movement, further, drew his left across the roads reserved for the right column of the II. In reply he received a telegram from Moltke, ordering him to clear the road at once, and couched in terms which he considered as a severe reprimand. An explanatory letter, meant to soften the rebuke, was delayed in transmission and did not reach him till too late to modify the orders he had already issued. It must be remembered that Steinmetz at the front was in a better position to judge the apparent situation than was Moltke at Mainz, and that all through the day of the 5th of August he had received intelligence indicating a change of attitude in the French army.
The news of the German victory at Weissenburg on the 4th see below had in fact completely paralysed the French headquarters, and orders were issued by them during the course of the 5th to concentrate the whole army of the Battle of Spicheren. Rhine on the selected position of Cadenbronn. Steinmetz, therefore, being quite unaware of the scheme for a great battle on the Saar about the 12th of August, felt that the situation would best be met, and the letter of his instructions strictly obeyed, by moving his whole command forward to the line of the Saar, and orders to this effect were issued on the evening of the 5th.
To secure this advantage was the obvious duty of the commander on the spot, and he at once ordered his troops to occupy a line of low heights beyond the town to serve as a bridge-head. Everywhere, generals and troops hurried towards the cannon thunder. As each fresh unit reached the field it was hurried into action where its services 8 were most needed, and each fresh general as he arrived took a new view of the combat and issued new orders.
On the other side, Frossard, knowing the strength of his position, called on his neighbours for support, and determined to hold his ground. Victory seemed certain. There were sufficient troops within easy reach to have ensured a crushing numerical superiority. But the other generals had not been trained to mutual support, and thought only of their own immediate security, and their staffs were too inexperienced to act upon even good intentions; and, finding himself in the course of the afternoon left to his own devices, Frossard began gradually to withdraw, even before the pressure of the 13th German division on his left flank about 8 P.
When darkness ended the battle the Prussians were scarcely aware of their victory. Steinmetz, who had reached the field about 6 P. But whereas out of 42, Prussians with guns, who in the morning lay within striking distance of the enemy, no fewer than 27,, with 78 guns were actually engaged; of the French, out of 64, with guns only 24, with 90 guns took part in the action.
Meanwhile on the German left wing the III. Early on the 4th of August it crossed the frontier and fell upon a French detachment under Abel Douay, which had been placed near Weissenburg, partly to Action of Weissenburg. Against this force of under men of all arms, the Germans brought into action successively portions of three corps, in all over 25, men with 90 guns.
The Germans were so elated by their victory over the enemy, whose strength they naturally overestimated, that they forgot to send cavalry in pursuit, and thus entirely lost touch with the enemy. Next day the advance was resumed, the two Bavarian corps moving via Mattstall through the foothills of the Vosges, the V. The 4th cavalry division scouted in advance, and army headquarters moved to Sulz.
As his army was dispersed over a wide area, the crown prince determined to devote the 6th to concentrating the troops, and, probably to avoid alarming the enemy, ordered the cavalry to stand fast. At night the outposts of the I. Bavarians and V. MacMahon had in fact determined to stand in the very formidable position he had selected, and he counted on receiving support both from the 7th corps two divisions of which were being railed up from Colmar and from the 5th corps, which lay around Bitche.
It was also quite possible, and the soundest strategy, to withdraw the bulk of the troops then facing the German I. He was therefore justified in accepting battle, though it was to his interest to delay it as long as possible. At dawn on the 6th of August the commander of the V. The French artillery immediately accepted the Prussian challenge.
The I. Bavarians, having been ordered to be ready to move if they heard artillery fire, immediately advanced against the French left, encountering presently such a stubborn resistance that parts of their line began to give way. The Prussians of the V. When the crown prince tried to break off the fight it was too late. Both sides were feeding troops into the firing line, as and where they could lay hands on them. The centre held on for another hour, but in its turn was compelled to yield, and by 4. When at this stage the supports sent by de Failly from Bitche came on the ground they saw the hopelessness of intervention, and retired whence they had come.
Fortunately for the French, the German 4th cavalry division, on which the pursuit should have devolved, had been forgotten by the German staff, and did not reach the front before darkness fell. Out of a total of 82, within reach of the battlefield, the Germans succeeded in bringing into action 77, Under cover of darkness the remnants of the French army escaped. When at length the 4th cavalry division had succeeded in forcing a way through the confusion of the battlefield, all touch with the enemy had been lost, and being without firearms the troopers were checked by the French stragglers in the woods and the villages, and thus failed to establish the true line of retreat of the French.
This is a remarkable example of the strategical value of railways to an army operating in its own country.
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In the absence of all resistance, the III. We return now to the I. Its position on the morning of the 7th of August gave cause for the gravest anxiety. At daylight a dense fog lay over the country, and through the mist sounds of heavy firing came Movements on the Saar. The confusion on the battlefield was appalling, and the troops in no condition to go forward. But the German cavalry and staff were quite new to their task. The 6th cavalry division, which had bivouacked on the battlefield, sent on only one brigade towards Forbach, retaining the remainder in reserve.
These were well led, but were too few in number, and their reports were consequently unconvincing. In the course of the day Steinmetz became very uneasy, and ultimately he decided to concentrate his army by retiring the VII. But at this moment Prince Frederick Charles suddenly modified his views. The prince forthwith deflected the march of the Guards, IV. Thus, as Steinmetz moved away to the west and north, Frederick Charles was diverging to the south and east, and a great gap was opening in the very centre of the German front. This was closed only by the III.
Fortunately for the Prussians, Moltke at Mainz took a different view. Receiving absolutely no intelligence from the front during the 7th, he telegraphed orders to the I. It was now led back practically to its old bivouacs amongst the unburied dead. During the night of the 7th of August Moltke decided that the French army must be in retreat towards the Moselle and forthwith busied himself with the preparation of fresh tables of march for the two armies, his object being to swing up the left wing to outflank the enemy from the south.
This work, and the transfer of headquarters to Homburg, needed time, hence no fresh orders were issued to either army, and neither commander would incur the responsibility of moving without any. During the 9th the orders for the advance to the Moselle were issued.
These were based, not on an exact knowledge of where the French army actually stood, but on the opinion Advance to the Moselle. Moltke had formed as to where it ought to have been on military grounds solely, overlooking the fact that the French staff were not free to form military decisions but were compelled to bow to political expediency.
Actually on the 7th of August the emperor had decided to attack the Germans on the 8th with the whole Rhine Army, but this decision was upset by alarmist reports from the beaten army of MacMahon. At the same time he assigned the executive command over the whole Rhine Army to Marshal Bazaine. This retreat was begun during the course of the 8th and 9th of August; but on the night of the 9th urgent telegrams from Paris induced the emperor to suspend the movement, and during the 10th the whole army took up a strong position on the French Nied.
Meanwhile the II. The movement was begun on the 10th, and towards evening the French army was located on the right front of the III. The III. Before, however, these orders had been received the sudden retreat of the French completely changed the situation. The Germans therefore continued their movement towards the Moselle. On the 13th the French took up a fresh position 5 m. Again Moltke ordered the I. The cavalry was to scout beyond the Moselle and intercept all communication with the heart of France see Metz. Battle of Colombey-Borny. By this time the whole German army had imbibed the idea that the French were in full retreat and endeavouring to evade a decisive struggle.
In a short time, with or without orders, the I. But the French too turned back to fight, and an obstinate engagement ensued, at the close of which the Germans barely held the ground and the French withdrew under cover of the Metz forts. Still, though the fighting had been indecisive, the conviction of victory remained with the Germans, and the idea of a French retreat became an obsession.
This order, however, did not allow for the hopeless inability of the French staff to regulate the movement of congested masses of men, horses and vehicles, such as were now accumulated in the streets and environs of Metz. Whilst Bazaine had come to no definite decision whether to stand and fight or continue to retreat, and was merely drifting under the impressions of the moment, the Prussian leaders, in particular Prince Frederick Charles, saw in imagination the French columns in rapid orderly movement towards the west, and calculated that at best they could not be overtaken short of Verdun.
In this order of ideas the whole of the II. No definite information as to the French army reached him in time to modify these instructions. The commander of the X. Von Alvensleben, to whom the 6th cavalry division had meanwhile been assigned, seems to have received no local intelligence whatsoever; and at daybreak on the 16th he began his march 10 in two columns, the 6th division on Mars-la-Tour, the 5th Battle of Vionville-Mars-la-Tour.
And shortly after 9. In this crisis he made up his mind at once to attack with every available man, and to continue to attack, in the conviction that his audacity would serve to conceal his weakness. All day long, therefore, the Brandenburgers of the III. The enemy was thrice their strength, but very differently led, and made no adequate use of his superiority battle of Vionville-Mars-la Tour. Firing had been heard since 9.
Then, mounting his horse, he covered the 15 m. When darkness put a stop to the fighting, he considered the position. Cancelling all previous orders, he called all troops within reach to the battle-field and resigned himself to wait for them. The situation was indeed critical. The whole French army of five corps, only half of which had been engaged, lay in front of him. His own army lay scattered over an area of 30 m. He did not then know that Moltke had already intervened and had ordered the VII. Daylight revealed the extreme exhaustion of both men and horses.
The men lay around in hopeless confusion amongst the killed and wounded, each where sleep had overtaken him, and thus the extent of the actual losses, heavy enough, could not be estimated. Across the valley, bugle sounds revealed the French already alert, and presently a long line of skirmishers approached the Prussian position. But they halted just beyond rifle range, and it was soon evident that they were only intended to cover a further withdrawal.
Presently came the welcome intelligence that the reinforcements were well on their way.
About noon the king and Moltke drove up to the ground, and there was an animated discussion as to what the French would do next. Aware of their withdrawal from his immediate front, Prince Frederick Charles reverted to his previous idea and insisted that they were in full retreat towards the north, and that their entrenchments near Point du Jour and St Hubert see map in article Metz were at most a rearguard position. Moltke was inclined to the same view, but considered the alternative possibility of a withdrawal towards Metz, and about 2 P.
The whole army was to be drawn up at 6 A. The rest of the 17th was spent in restoring order in the shattered III. Strangely enough, there were no organized cavalry reconnaissances, and no intelligence of importance was collected during the night of the 17thth. Early on the 18th the troops began to move into position in the following order from left to right: XII.
Saxons , Guards, IX. The X. But between 10 and 11 A. Suddenly the IX. Prince Frederick Charles, however, a little farther north, again asserted his tactical ability, and about 7 P. The sudden collapse of French resistance, due to the frontal attack of the Guards St Privat and the turning movement of the Saxons Roncourt , rendered the use of this mass unnecessary, but the resolution to use it was there.
On the German right I. He Bazaine in Metz. During the retreat to Metz the marshal had satisfied himself as to the inability of his corps commanders to handle their troops, and also as to the ill-will of the staff.
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In the circumstances he felt that a battle in the open field could only end in disaster; and, since it was proved that the Germans could outmarch him, his army was sure to be overtaken and annihilated if he ventured beyond the shelter of the fortress. But near Metz he could at least inflict very severe punishment on his assailants, and in any case his presence in Metz would neutralize a far superior force of the enemy for weeks or months.
Bazaine was condemned by court-martial after the war, but if the case were reheard to-day it is certain that no charge of treachery could be sustained. On the German side the victory at St Privat was at once followed up by the headquarters. A new army, the Army of the Meuse often called the IV. Given seven corps, each capable of averaging 15 m. Thus whilst the German army, on a front of nearly 50 m. So unexpected was this move and so uncertain the information which called attention to it, that Moltke did not venture to change at once the direction of march of the whole army, but he directed the Army of the Meuse northward on Damvillers and ordered Prince Frederick Charles to detach two corps from the forces investing Metz to reinforce it.
The detachment from the II. The latter came into contact with the head of the French columns, during the 29th, about Nouart, and on the 30th at Buzancy battle of Beaumont ; and the French, yielding to the force of numbers combined with superior moral, were driven north-westward upon Sedan q.
During the 31st the retreat practically became a rout, and the morning of the 1st of September found the French crowded around the little fortress of Sedan, with only one line of retreat to the north-west still open. By 11 A. The battle of Sedan was closed about 4. Terms were agreed upon during the night, and the whole French army, with the emperor, passed into captivity.
Thus in five weeks one of the French field armies was imprisoned in Metz, the other destroyed, and the Germans were free to march upon Paris. This seemed easy. There could be no organized opposition to their progress, 4 and Paris, Later operations. Starvation was the best method of attacking an overcrowded fortress, and the Parisians were not thought to be proof against the deprivation of their accustomed luxuries. The march called for no more than good staff arrangements, and the two armies arrived before Paris a fortnight later and gradually encircled the place—the III.
Headquarters were established at Versailles. Meanwhile the Third Empire had fallen, giving place on the 4th of September to a republican Government of National Defence, which made its appeal to, and evoked, the spirit of Henceforward the French nation, which had left the conduct of the war to the regular army and had been little more than an excited spectator, took the burden upon itself. But the Garde Mobile, framed by Marshal Niel in , doubled this figure, and the addition of the Garde Nationale, called into existence on the 15th of September, and including all able-bodied men of from 31 to 60 years of age, more than trebled it.
The German staff had of course to reckon on the Garde Mobile, and did so beforehand, but they wholly underestimated both its effective members and its willingness, while, possessing themselves a system in which all the military elements of the German nation stood close behind the troops of the active army, they ignored the potentialities of the Garde Nationale. Meanwhile, both as a contrast to the events that centred on Paris and because in point of time they were decided for the most part in the weeks immediately following Sedan, we must briefly allude to the sieges conducted by the Germans—Paris q.
Old and ruined as many of them were, the French fortresses possessed considerable importance in the eyes of the Germans. Strassburg, in particular, the key of Alsace, the standing menace to South Germany and the most conspicuous of the spoils of Louis XIV. The French commandant, General Uhrich, surrendered after a stubborn resistance on the 28th of September. Of the smaller fortresses many, being practically unarmed and without garrisons, capitulated at once. Toul, defended by Major Huck with mobiles, resisted for forty days, and drew upon itself the efforts of 13, men and guns.
Some of the fortresses lying to the north of the Prussian line of advance on Paris, e. On the 9th of September a strange incident took place at the surrender of Laon. A powder magazine was blown up by the soldiers in charge and French and a few German soldiers were killed by the explosion. But as the Germans advanced, their lines of communication were thoroughly organized, and the belt of country between Paris and the Prussian frontier subdued and garrisoned. In addition they were usually deficient in armament and stores and garrisoned by newly-raised troops.
Belfort, where the defenders strained every nerve to keep the besiegers out of bombarding range, and Paris formed the only exceptions to this general rule. The policy of the new French government was defined by Jules Favre on the 6th of September. But it is claimed that by undue interference with the generals at the front, by presuming to dictate their plans of campaign, and by forcing them to act when the troops were unready, Gambetta and de Freycinet nullified the efforts of themselves and the rest of the nation and subjected France 12 to a humiliating treaty of peace.
We cannot here discuss the justice or injustice of such a general condemnation, or even whether in individual instances Gambetta trespassed too far into the special domain of the soldier. The closest study of the war cannot lead to any other conclusion than this, that whether or not Gambetta as a strategist took the right course in general or in particular cases, no one else would have taken any course whatever. On the approach of the enemy Paris hastened its preparations for defence to the utmost, while in the provinces, out of reach of the German cavalry, new army corps were rapidly organized out of the few constituted regular units not involved in the previous catastrophes, the depot troops and the mobile national guard.
The first-fruits of these efforts were seen in Beauce, where early in October important masses of French troops prepared not only to bar the further progress of the invader but actually to relieve Paris. But an untimely demonstration of force alarmed the Germans, all of whom, from Moltke downwards, had hitherto disbelieved in the existence of the French new formations, and the still unready 15th corps found itself the target of an expedition of the I.
After these events the French forces disappeared from German eyes for some weeks. This army was almost imaginary, yet rumours of its existence and numbers led the German commanders into the gravest errors, for they soon came to suspect that the main army lay on that side and not on the Loire, and this mistaken impression governed the German dispositions up to the very eve of the decisive events around Orleans in December.
Bavarian corps near Orleans, he found his task easy. The Bavarians, outnumbered and unsupported, were defeated with heavy losses in the battle of Coulmiers November 9 , and, had it not been for the inexperience, want of combination, and other technical weaknesses of the French, they would have been annihilated. What the results of such a victory as Coulmiers might have been, had it been won by a fully organized, smoothly working army of the same strength, it is difficult to overestimate.
As it was, the retirement of the Bavarians rang the alarm bell all along the line of the German positions, and that was all. Then once again, instead of following up its success, the French army disappeared from view. Meantime the capitulation of Metz on the 28th of October had set free the veterans of Prince Frederick Charles, the best troops in the German army, for field operations. The latter were at first misdirected to the upper Seine, and yet another opportunity arose for the French to raise the siege of Paris. All this was, however, unknown and even unsuspected at the German headquarters, and the invaders, feeling the approaching crisis, became more than uneasy as to their prospects of maintaining the siege of Paris.
The maintenance of their communications with Germany, relatively unimportant when the struggle took place in the circumstances of field warfare, had become supremely necessary, now that the army had come to a standstill and undertaken a great siege, which required heavy guns and constant replenishment of ammunition and stores. The rapidity of the German invasion had left no time for the proper organization and full garrisoning of these communications, which were now threatened, not merely by the Army of the Loire, but by other forces assembling on the area protected by Langres and Belfort.
German corps under General Werder, and eventually without arousing attention they were able to send 40, men to the Army of the Loire. This army, still around Orleans, thus came to number perhaps , men, and opposed to it, about the 14th of November, the Germans had only the Army Detachment of about 40,, the II. It was under these conditions that the famous Orleans campaign took place.
After many vicissitudes of fortune, and with many misunderstandings between Prince Frederick Charles, Moltke and the grand-duke, the Germans were ultimately victorious, thanks principally to the brilliant fighting of the X.
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The result of the capture of Orleans was the severance of the two wings of the French army, henceforward commanded respectively by Chanzy and Bourbaki. The latter fell back at once and hastily, though not closely pursued, to Bourges. Indeed their solitary material success, the capture of Beaugency, was due chiefly to the fact that the French there were subjected to conflicting orders from the military and the governmental authorities.
After that Chanzy was rapidly driven north-westward, though always presenting a stubborn front. The Delegation left Tours and betook itself to Bordeaux, whence it directed the government for the rest of the war. But all this continuous marching and fighting, and the growing severity of the weather, compelled Prince Frederick Charles to call a halt for a few days. About the 19th of December, therefore, the Germans II. During this, as during other halts, the French government and its generals occupied themselves with fresh plans of campaign, the former with an eager desire for results, the latter Chanzy excepted with many misgivings.
This movement, bold to the point of extreme rashness judged by any theoretical rules of strategy, seems to have been suggested by de Freycinet.
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As the execution of it fell actually into incapable hands, it is difficult to judge what would have been the result had a Chanzy or a Faidherbe been in command of the French. A mere calculation of time and space sufficed to show the German headquarters that the moment had arrived to demolish the stubborn Chanzy. Prince Frederick Charles resumed the interrupted offensive, pushing westward with four corps and four cavalry divisions which converged on Le Mans. There on the 10th, 11th and 12th of January a stubbornly contested Le Mans.
But Chanzy, resolute as ever, drew off his field army intact towards Laval, where a freshly raised corps joined him. Some idea of the strain to which the invaders had been subjected may be gathered from the fact that army corps, originally 30, strong, were in some cases reduced to 10, and even fewer bayonets.
And at this moment Bourbaki was at the head of , men!
Indeed, so threatening seemed the situation on the Loire, though the French south of that river between Gien and Blois were mere isolated brigades, that the prince hurried back from Le Mans to Orleans to take personal command. A fresh French corps, bearing the number 25, and being the twenty-first actually raised during the war, appeared in the field towards Blois. Chanzy was again at the head of , men.
He was about to take the offensive against the 40, Germans left near Le Mans when to his bitter disappointment he received the news of the armistice. As for the soldiers themselves, their most conspicuous qualities were their uncomplaining endurance of fatigues and wet bivouacs, and in action their capacity for a single great effort and no more. The decision, as we have said, was fought out on the Loire and the Sarthe.
In the north the organization of the new formations was begun by Dr Testelin and General Farre. General Farre was his capable chief of staff. Troops were raised from fugitives from Metz and Sedan, as well as from depot troops and the Garde Mobile, and several minor successes were won by the national troops in the Seine valley, for here, as on the side of the Loire, mere detachments of the investing army round Paris were almost powerless. But the capitulation of Metz came too soon for the full development of these sources of military strength, and the German I.
Before Faidherbe assumed command, Farre had fought several severe actions near Amiens, but, greatly outnumbered, had been defeated and forced to retire behind the Somme. Another French general, Briand, had also engaged the enemy without success near Rouen. Faidherbe assumed the command on the 3rd of December, and promptly moved forward. A general engagement on the little river Hallue December 23 , east-north-east of Amiens, was fought with no decisive results, but Faidherbe, feeling that his troops were only capable of winning victories in the first rush, drew them off on the 24th.
Meanwhile the Rouen troops had been contained by a strong German detachment, and there was no further chance of succouring Paris from the north. But Faidherbe, like Chanzy, was far from despair, and in spite of the deficiencies of his troops in equipment 50, pairs of shoes, supplied by English contractors, proved to have paper soles , he risked a third great battle at St Quentin January Oxygenated blood returning to the heart is then pumped through the vascular system to the various tissues where the oxygen is consumed.
Two common respiratory organs of invertebrates are trachea and gills. Diffusion lungs, as contrasted with ventilation lungs of vertebrates, are confined to small animals, such as pulmonate snails and scorpions. This respiratory organ is a hallmark of insects. It is made up of a system of branching tubes that deliver oxygen to, and remove carbon dioxide from, the tissues, thereby obviating the need for a circulatory system to transport the respiratory gases although the circulatory system does serve other vital functions, such as the delivery of energy-containing molecules derived from food.
The pores to the outside, called spiracles , are typically paired structures, two in the thorax and eight in the abdomen. Periodic opening and closing of the spiracles prevents water loss by evaporation, a serious threat to insects that live in dry environments. Muscular pumping motions of the abdomen, especially in large animals, may promote ventilation of the tracheal system. Although tracheal systems are primarily designed for life in air, in some insects modifications enable the tracheae to serve for gas exchange under water.
Of special interest are the insects that might be termed bubble breathers, which, as in the case of the water beetle Dytiscus , take on a gas supply in the form of an air bubble under their wing surfaces next to the spiracles before they submerge. Tracheal gas exchange continues after the beetle submerges and anchors beneath the surface.
As oxygen is consumed from the bubble, the partial pressure of oxygen within the bubble falls below that in the water; consequently oxygen diffuses from the water into the bubble to replace that consumed. The carbon dioxide produced by the insect diffuses through the tracheal system into the bubble and thence into the water. The bubble thus behaves like a gill. There is one major limitation to this adaptation: As oxygen is removed from the bubble, the partial pressure of the nitrogen rises, and this gas then diffuses outward into the water.
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The consequence of outward nitrogen diffusion is that the bubble shrinks and its oxygen content must be replenished by another trip to the surface. A partial solution to the problem of bubble renewal has been found by small aquatic beetles of the family Elmidae e. Several species of aquatic beetles also augment gas exchange by stirring the surrounding water with their posterior legs. An elegant solution to the problem of bubble exhaustion during submergence has been found by certain beetles that have a high density of cuticular hair over much of the surface of the abdomen and thorax.
The hair pile is so dense that it resists wetting, and an air space forms below it, creating a plastron , or air shell, into which the tracheae open. As respiration proceeds, the outward diffusion of nitrogen and consequent shrinkage of the gas space are prevented by the surface tension —a condition manifested by properties that resemble those of an elastic skin under tension—between the closely packed hairs and the water. During sexual reproduction , mating with a close relative inbreeding generally leads to inbreeding depression.
For instance, inbreeding was found to increase juvenile mortality in 11 small animal species. Animals have evolved numerous diverse mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding and promoting outcrossing  see Inbreeding avoidance. As indicated in the image of chimpanzees, they have adopted dispersal as a way to separate close relatives and prevent inbreeding.
In various species, such as the splendid fairywren , females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality. Females that are pair bonded to a male of poor genetic quality, as is the case in inbreeding, are more likely to engage in extra-pair copulations in order to improve their reproductive success and the survivability of their offspring.
All animals are heterotrophs , meaning that they feed directly or indirectly on other living things. Predation is a biological interaction where a predator a heterotroph that is hunting feeds on its prey the organism that is attacked. Selective pressures imposed on one another has led to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations.
Most animals indirectly use the energy of sunlight by eating plants or plant-eating animals. Most plants use light to convert inorganic molecules in their environment into carbohydrates , fats , proteins and other biomolecules, characteristically containing reduced carbon in the form of carbon-hydrogen bonds. Starting with carbon dioxide CO 2 and water H 2 O , photosynthesis converts the energy of sunlight into chemical energy in the form of simple sugars e.
These sugars are then used as the building blocks for plant growth, including the production of other biomolecules. Animals living close to hydrothermal vents and cold seeps on the ocean floor are not dependent on the energy of sunlight. Template:Further information. Animals are generally considered to have emerged within flagellated eukaryota.
They were found in million-year-old rock. The next oldest possible animal fossils are found towards the end of the Precambrian , around million years ago, and are known as the Ediacaran or Vendian biota. Some may represent precursors of modern phyla, but they may be separate groups, and it is possible they are not really animals at all. Aside from them, most known animal phyla make a more or less simultaneous appearance during the Cambrian period, about million years ago. Some palaeontologists suggest that animals appeared much earlier than the Cambrian explosion, possibly as early as 1 billion years ago.
However the discovery that tracks very similar to these early trace fossils are produced today by the giant single-celled protist Gromia sphaerica casts doubt on their interpretation as evidence of early animal evolution. Choanoflagellata 70 px. Ctenophora 70 px. Cnidaria 70 px. Deuterostomes 70 px. Ecdysozoa 70 px. Lophotrochozoa 70 px. Several animal phyla are recognized for their lack of bilateral symmetry , and are thought to have diverged from other animals early in evolution.
Among these, the sponges Porifera were long thought to have diverged first, representing the oldest animal phylum. Among the other phyla, the Ctenophora and the Cnidaria , which includes sea anemones , corals , and jellyfish , are radially symmetric and have digestive chambers with a single opening, which serves as both the mouth and the anus.
As such, these animals are sometimes called diploblastic. The Myxozoa , microscopic parasites that were originally considered Protozoa, are now believed to have evolved within Cnidaria. The remaining animals form a monophyletic group called the Bilateria.
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For the most part, they are bilaterally symmetric , and often have a specialized head with feeding and sensory organs. The body is triploblastic , i. The digestive chamber has two openings, a mouth and an anus, and there is also an internal body cavity called a coelom or pseudocoelom. There are exceptions to each of these characteristics, however—for instance adult echinoderms are radially symmetric, and certain parasitic worms have extremely simplified body structures.
Genetic studies have considerably changed our understanding of the relationships within the Bilateria. Most appear to belong to two major lineages: the deuterostomes and the protostomes , the latter of which includes the Ecdysozoa , and Lophotrochozoa. The Chaetognatha or arrow worms have been traditionally classified as deuterostomes, though recent molecular studies have identified this group as a basal protostome lineage. In addition, there are a few small groups of bilaterians with relatively cryptic morphology whose relationships with other animals are not well-established.
For example, recent molecular studies have identified Acoelomorpha and Xenoturbella as comprising a monophyletic group    , but studies disagree as to whether this group evolved from within deuterostomes  , or whether it represents the sister group to all other bilaterian animals Nephrozoa  . Other groups of uncertain affinity include the Rhombozoa and Orthonectida. Deuterostomes differ from protostomes in several ways.
Animals from both groups possess a complete digestive tract. However, in protostomes, the first opening of the gut to appear in embryological development the archenteron develops into the mouth, with the anus forming secondarily. In deuterostomes the anus forms first, with the mouth developing secondarily. All this suggests the deuterostomes and protostomes are separate, monophyletic lineages. The main phyla of deuterostomes are the Echinodermata and Chordata. In addition to these, the deuterostomes also include the Hemichordata , or acorn worms, which are thought to be closely related to Echinodermata forming a group known as Ambulacraria.
The Lophotrochozoa , evolved within Protostomia, include two of the most successful animal phyla, the Mollusca and Annelida. These two groups have long been considered close relatives because of the common presence of trochophore larvae, but the annelids were considered closer to the arthropods because they are both segmented. The Platyzoa include the phylum Platyhelminthes , the flatworms. The most prominent are the Rotifera or rotifers, which are common in aqueous environments. They also include the Acanthocephala or spiny-headed worms, the Gnathostomulida , Micrognathozoa , and possibly the Cycliophora.
Animals can be divided into two broad groups: vertebrates animals with a backbone and invertebrates animals without a backbone. Half of all described vertebrate species are fishes and three-quarters of all described invertebrate species are insects. The following table lists the number of described extant species for each major animal subgroup as estimated for the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species , Because of the great diversity found in animals, it is more economical for scientists to study a small number of chosen species so that connections can be drawn from their work and conclusions extrapolated about how animals function in general.
Because they are easy to keep and breed, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have long been the most intensively studied metazoan model organisms , and were among the first life-forms to be genetically sequenced. This was facilitated by the severely reduced state of their genomes , but as many genes , introns , and linkages lost, these ecdysozoans can teach us little about the origins of animals in general.
The extent of this type of evolution within the superphylum will be revealed by the crustacean, annelid, and molluscan genome projects currently in progress. Analysis of the starlet sea anemone genome has emphasized the importance of sponges, placozoans, and choanoflagellates , also being sequenced, in explaining the arrival of ancestral genes unique to the Eumetazoa.
An analysis of the homoscleromorph sponge Oscarella carmela also suggests that the last common ancestor of sponges and the eumetazoan animals was more complex than previously assumed.
Other model organisms belonging to the animal kingdom include the house mouse Mus musculus and zebrafish Danio rerio. Template:Wikipedia books. Template:Sister project links. Template:Nature Template:Nature nav Script error. Sign In Don't have an account? Start a Wiki. For other uses, see Animalia disambiguation. Contents [ show ]. Life timeline.
Single-celled life. Multicellular life. Land life. Earliest water. Earliest life. LHB meteorites. Earliest oxygen. Atmospheric oxygen. Oxygen crisis. Earliest sexual reproduction. Ediacara biota. Cambrian explosion. Earliest humans. Axis scale : million years Orange labels: ice ages. Also see: Human timeline and Nature timeline. Frontiers in Zoology. The Oxford Dictionary of Word Origins 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press.