A Pragmatic Logic for Commands

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They are. I also added a separation between pure and impure domain services, i. Commands belong to the core domain just like domain events. They play an important role in the CQRS architecture - they explicitly represent what the clients can do with the application. Just like events represent what the outcome of those actions could be. Commands and events are two ends of the same stick, they reside at the same abstraction level.

Commands are what triggers a reaction in the domain model. And events are the result of that reaction. The only difference between them is that the commands follow the push model while the events - the pull one. Domain modeling is for writes, not reads. But you do need a rich and highly encapsulated domain model for data modification. It has a potential for data corruption that you need to have a good protection from. A lot of people are hesitant to treat commands as part of the core domain, though.

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In the above example, the command serves as a data container for the incoming request. Which is clearly not what you want your domain classes to be used as. Data that comes from external applications should be represented by a special type of classes - Data Transfer Objects DTOs for short. This version contains an explicit mapping between the incoming data represented by the DTO and the command. Boston is the east coast hub for colocation. There are many considerations to take into account when implementing a Microsoft SQL Server in a private cloud environment.

This piece covers performance considerations to ensure that your SQL Server environment is ready to meet application, growth and DR requirements for your organization. Atlanta is the southeastern data center hub and ranks in the top five markets for bandwidth access. Considering Atlanta for a colocation, network or cloud solution? This is usually a very simple layer, that just converts user actions into interactions with the rest of inner layers.

This one will be part of the app module, and will mainly implement the dependencies that we provide to the rest of layers. The first could be implemented with Room for instance, and the second with the LocationManager. I might do the real implementation at the end, but it would only add complexity to the explanation so I prefer you to forget about it for now. Think about this in a real project. Thanks to the interfaces, during the implementation of a new feature, you can provide fake dependencies while working on the rest of the flow, and forget about the implementation details until the end.

This also proves that these implementation details are easily interchangeable.

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So maybe your App can work initially with an in-memory persistence, and then move to stored persistence. That can be implemented as we want, and then replaced. And of course, this also helps on tests, where we can replace those components by fake or mocked ones. And now we can write the UI.

But both approaches are very similar. All quite simple here, apart from the way to do the background tasks. I already talked about Kotlin 1. Finally, the MainActivity. In order to avoid using a dependency injector, I declared the dependencies here:. It has a RecyclerView and a Button.

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When the button is clicked, it calls to the presenter so that it requests a new location:. And when the presenter finishes, it calls the View method. This interface is implemented by the activity this way:. But to me, the presentation can be a good place where we could make use of this concept. As you saw in the adapter code, I did some complex calculations to convert the domain model into what we want to see in the screen. That can be simplified by using a specific model:.

And then, we can convert the domain model into the presentation model. Remember that, thanks to named imports, we can change the name of the classes when we have two that are called the same:. That way, we prevent from doing data transformations in the UI classes, which reduces the complexity. You only need to understand how the dependency inversion works, and then link the layers properly. Just remember not to add dependencies to the outer modules from the inner ones, and you will have an excellent help from the IDE to do things right.

I know this is a lot of information. But my goal is that this serves as an entry point for people that never saw clean architecture before. Once you have this settled, I suggest you read other more complete examples. I always like to recommend this one from Fernando Cejas. The link to the Github repository is here. I dislike the concept of layers, in which a layer is allowed to depend upon a layer below it but not vice versa.

A layer would connect to another layer only via interfaces, both directions. Such a design would allow one to replace any layer without touching the other layers. Useful for unit tests and for creating a line of similar products. It is super easy to just put all the messages in the same bucket and others will take it from the same bucket, but pretty soon no one will know where is data coming from, who sent it, and debugging any issue becomes living hell. And that is even just scratching the surface of issues bus is bringing in practise.

Not to mention components highly dependent on each other, impossible reusability because everyone is already using everyone, weird workaround for testing if it is possible to test it at all , etc.. To put it simple it become very very fast big ball of mud that every developer is afraid to touch.

Thank you for this article. It clarifies the dependency inversion principle very well. Hi, First of all , you wrote a very good article on clean architecture. I have two queries regarding using clean architecture in Android applications. Should we need to use clean architecture for every Android application. If answer is no , then what will be guideline for choosing android application for which we need to use clean architecture. I am asking this question because if we follow clean architecture then it required significant amount of coding effort to implement clean architecture.

Should we have data object for each layer with mapper? I seen article on clean architecture, which suggest we should use data object for each layer with mapper, which make each layer independent of other and also testable. You can use any flexible enough architecture though, not clean specifically. It helps having more decoupled layers, but if the models are two similar between layers, I tend to avoid them.

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IMO the most important transformations happen in the external boundaries. For example when you parse a model from a Json, that model tends to have the info structured in an arbitrary way that is probably not what you need. And if the structure of the Json changes, it would affect your whole App. My advice is to create the ideal model in the domain layer, and use it where you can. If you need a different one in some layer for example, in this sample it would make sense for the UI you can create a new one.

One more question , Why you avoid using RxJava , instead you used Kotlin coroutines. The main advantage I found from RxJava is that it provides operator which allow us to execute network request in parallel also allowing combining results of multiple network calls without writing extra code for these tasks. At the same time my data layer , domain layer, presentation layer have dependency on Rx Java. But if you are really taking the most out of the library more than just doing simple http requests then it may make sense.

Or do they have nothing to do with business logic…. Though the original one, the one that Uncle Bob shared, is the one that I put first. Antonio, excellent article. I agree with you, it depends on the solution the amount of layers and artifacts that are used. Great article! I really like the idea of putting framework classes like location behind a repository.

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I was wondering what your thoughts were on either combining use cases into objects of common behavior e. I totally agree. My only concern with using classes to combine several use cases is that those classes can grow indiscriminately. If you use the repository directly, when any complexity is added, for instance you need another module to check or validate something, that would require another refactored that is easy to ignore. I think the important point is to define a set of rules that make all the team work the same way, so that the code is homogeneous. Agree with the repository point!

Imagine you have a large project with 50 api calls plus database, caching, etc. An idea for a more scalable structure could be usecases with names which define a general responsibility. UserUpdater, LocationHandler, Authenticator. In the end, use cases are using the Command pattern, whose benefit is that the number of commands can grow without affecting the complexity of the code.

It has another benefit: with uses cases as classes, a complex presenter will have many use cases, and constructors can become huge and messy. Agree the one method classes can get unweidly, but there is advantages: — Less chance of unnecessarily instatiating a class that is not used in the method you want to call small memory saving. Hi Antonio, I have query regarding repository, I have huge number of network calls in my application it keeps increasing size of repository class. Do you have any idea how we can refactor repository class or limit size of repository.

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In fact, having separated repositories for different entities is a good thing to do. But for instance, if you have users and posts in your App, you could have a repository to deal with users, and another one to deal with posts. You wrote at the beginning about a case if the data comes from a Broadcast, but I can not find any more details about that case. Can you tell us how would you handle that? What about if you need to implement a ContactRepository that lists all the contacts from the device via LoaderManager?

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But to give an answer now, yeah. The framework layer would implement some kind of interface from the inner layer, and provide an implementation that interacts with the Android APIs. I have the domain module, entire written in Kotlin, and inside it I have one class that contains the logic and the state of a game. As a 10 year web developer who has been studying Android developing for the last month I have found this post the best for understanding clean architecture. I love the pragmatic view you apply in your explanation. This for me is the true indicator that somebody understands what is behind a theory.

Not just applying the theory but to twist it to your real needs. Thanks for sharing. Just a minor typo.